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สวัสดีค่ะ, ดิฉันปรารถนาค่ะ! Welcome to Thaipod101.com’s ตัวอักษรไทย Made Easy!
The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn the Thai alphabet: ตัวอักษรไทย!
In the last lesson you learned the letters ข and ฉ, and the vowels สระ เอียะ and สระ เอีย. Do you remember how to write them all?
In this lesson, you’re going to learn about three high class consonants, plus another tone rule.
You're learning three new high class consonants, but they all make the same sound. From left to right, they are ศ (sǎaw sǎa-laa), ษ (sǎaw ruue-sǐi), and ส (sǎaw sǔuea). As an initial consonant they make the sound of letter S, and as final consonants they make a T-stop.
The word ศาลา (sǎa-laa) means "pavillion", ฤๅษี (ruue-sǐi) is a "hermit", and เสือ (sǔuea) means "tiger".
As you can see, all of these letters look like other letters with just one extra line added.
ศ looks like ค, so we sometimes call it ศอคอ ศาลา (sǎaw-khaaw sǎa-laa).
ษ looks like บ, so we sometimes call it ษอบอ ฤๅษี (sǎaw-baaw ruue-sǐi).
ส looks like ล, but we always just call it สอ เสือ (sǎaw sǔuea).
Of these three letters, you'll see ส the most.
To write these three letters properly, you should pick up your pen from the paper before the last stroke.
Here is ศ. Now ษ. And last we have ส
But when Thai people write, they often don't pick up the pen between strokes, so each letter gets written with one continuous line, like this:
ศ, ษ, ส
Let's use these new letters to write some words. Here is the word ศีล (sǐin), which means "moral precept". It has ศ as an initial consonant, then the long vowel สระ อี is written above. The final consonant is ล, which makes a sound like the letter N in this position.
ศีล is said with a rising tone because it has a high class consonant with a live syllable ending.
Your turn.
ศ, สระ อี, ล... ศีล
For the next word, we need to learn a new symbol. This is called การันต์ (gaa-ran). We write การันต์ above a consonant to indicate that it is a silent letter.
For example, here is the word สัตว์ (sàt), which means "animal". The initial consonant is ส, which makes an S sound. The vowel is สระ อะ, which is shown with the symbol ไม้หันอากาศ.
And the final consonant of the syllable is ต, which makes a T-stop.
Then, at the end of the word is the letter ว with การันต written above it. This means ว doesn't make any sound in this word.
So why write that letter at all? We do it to preserve the original spelling of a loanword from another language that gets pronounced differently in Thai.
Let's write it together.
ส, ไม้หันอากาศ, ต, ว, การันต์. สัตว์
The word สัตว์ also gives us a new tone rule:
High class initial consonant + dead ending = low tone.
Here is another word that uses การันต์. See if you can figure out how to read it.
The initial consonant is ย, which makes a sound like the letter Y. The vowel is สระ อะ written with ไม้หันอากาศ.
And the final consonant is ก which makes a K-stop.
At the end we have ษ which makes no sound because it has การันต์ above it. So this word is ยักษ์ (yák), which is a "giant". Maybe you've seen statues of ยักษ์ at a Thai temple.
ยักษ์ is high tone because it has a low class consonant and a dead syllable with a short vowel.
ย, สระ อะ written with ไม้หันอากาศ, ก, ษ with a การันต์...ยักษ์
Let's learn a new pair of vowels to write a few more new words. Here are the vowels สระ เออะ (sà-rà òe) and สระ เออ (sà-rà ooe). They make the vowel sound เออ (ooe), which is a little bit like the ER in "her", only said with a more relaxed throat.
When there is no final consonant, สระ เออ is written using สระ เอ before the initial consonant and อ after it. To make it a short vowel, we add สระ อะ to the end to give us สระ เออะ.
Ok, let's write these two vowels:
สระ เออะ, สระ เออ
One word that uses the short vowel is เยอะ (yóe), which means "many". It has the initial consonant ย. And สระ เออะ is written by putting สระ เอ before the consonant. Then อ and สระ อะ are written after it.
สระ เออะ is written by putting สระ เอ before the consonant ย, อ, สระ อะ ...เยอะ
สระ เออ is often used to represent the sound of the letters ER in loanwords from English. For example, here is the word เบอร์ (booe), which is shortened from the English word "number". The initial consonant is บ, which makes a B sound. สระ เอ is written before the consonant and อ is written after it to make the vowel สระ เออ. Finally, the letter ร is included, along with a การันต์ above it. It is just there to show you that the original spelling of this word in English used the letter R.
Let's write เบอร์ together.
สระ เอ, บ, อ , ร , การันต์ . เบอร์
In this word, ร doesn't count as a final consonant because it has การันต์ above it.
But in other words that have สระ เออ with a final consonant, we have to write สระ เออ differently.
When there's a final consonant after สระ เออ, it is written using สระ เอ and สระ อิ.
For example, here is the word เสิร์ฟ (sòoep), which comes from the English verb "to serve". The initial consonant is ส, which makes an S sound. สระ เอ and สระ อิ are written to the left and above it to make the vowel สระ เออ. The letter R in the English word "serve" doesn't get pronounced in Thai, so we write ร with การันต์ above it just to indicate what the original spelling was. Finally, ฟ is used in place of the letter V because there is no Thai letter that makes a V sound. But since ฟ makes a P-stop for a final sound we pronounce this word เสิร์ฟ (sòoep) instead of "serve".
Let's write เสิร์ฟ together.
สระ เอ, ส, สระ อิ, ร , การันต์, ฟ... เสิร์ฟ
เสิร์ฟ (sòoep) is said with a low tone because of the same tone rule we had earlier. High class initial consonants with dead syllable endings result in a low tone.
Now it's time for Pradthana's Points.
You can easily spot loan words in Thai by looking for การันต์ . We like to make words shorter, so many foreign loanwords have การันต์ written above a letter that we don't pronounce in Thai. If you see a word in Thai with การันต์ that doesn't look like an English word, then there is a very good chance that it came from an Indian language.
Thai people like to eat snacks. Do you know the word for "snack" in Thai? In the next ตัวอักษรไทย Made Easy Lesson you'll learn how to say it, and of course, how to write it! See you there! สวัสดีค่ะ!

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ThaiPod101.com Verified
Friday at 06:30 PM
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What Thai words can you write using ศ (Sǎaw sǎa-laa), ษ (Sǎaw ruue-sǐi), ส (Sǎaw sǔuea), เออะ (Short oe), or เออ (Long oe)?

ThaiPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 01:42 AM
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Hi sam,


Thank you. People who incharge are really busy and do not have time to discuss it. It is not easy to fix a language this old. No specific rules of which (ศ ษ ส) one to use but, ส is the most common. If we learn the spelling we will figure it out automatically. It is the only way at the moment. Please let me know if you have any future questions. I will be glad to help.


Have a good day.

ปริษา Parisa

Team ThaiPod101.com

sam
Monday at 04:36 PM
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hi there,

it may sound a silly question but if those 3 consonants (ศ ษ ส) makes the same sound why don't have just one?

which are the main rules to use one and not the other? thanks

ThaiPod101.com Verified
Friday at 11:35 PM
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Hi again Tim Nyap Ming,


When there is a hidden ะ is used with a Middle class or High class consonants, and the following syllable starts with low class consonant, the tone rules may be affected. Frequently, the low consonant will take on the tones characteristics of the initial middles or high consonant. In these cases, the word is pronounced as if the low consonant hid a silent ห (for high consonants) or a silent อ (for middle consonants) in front of it.

Have a good day.

ปริษา Parisa

Team ThaiPod101.com

ThaiPod101.com Verified
Friday at 11:34 PM
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Hello Tim Nyap Ming,


Thank you. This is how fruit spell ผลไม้ "ผน ละ ม้าย" When the clustered consonants can’t be blended (as in a true consonant cluster) or simplified (as in a false consonant cluster). If you force yourself to speak consonants that won’t blend, you’ll find yourself inserting a hardly-perceptible vowel sound in-between them. This becomes an unwritten -ะ sound (very short /-a/)—called an anaptyxix (or สวรภักดิ์ svarabhakti, to use the Sanskrit word)—pronounced as part of the consonant cluster. Hope that helps. Please let me know if you have any future questions. I will be glad to help.


Have a good day.

ปริษา Parisa

Team ThaiPod101.com

Tim Nyap Ming
Wednesday at 08:08 PM
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I have a question about how the syllable of fruit in Thai. In Thai, the word la ละ in the middle of ผน ไม่ is pronounced but not written? Is there any suggestion for understanding this rule? I also have some questions about the hidden ห and สระ อะ sara-ah short vowel sound?

ThaiPod101.com Verified
Wednesday at 12:31 AM
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Hi เดวิด,


Thank you. If ผนัง got hidden "o" then it would not be "pa-nang" then. And also will not able to spell. If it that way it would be "pon-nang" or "pon- ...." which not able to form a second syllable.

รถ has "o" vowel which changed it form.

ผนัง got "a" hidden vowel in the first syllable.

Hope that helps. Please let me know if you have any future questions. I will be glad to help.


Have a good day.

ปริษา Parisa

Team ThaiPod101.com

เดวิด
Wednesday at 10:47 AM
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Hi Parisa,


Maybe my question about unwritten vowels will be clear if we just focus on the word ผนัง.


No vowel was written between ผ and น, and those consonants do not form a consonant cluster. There is a written vowel paired with น ( ◌ั ), so therefore only one hidden vowel should be inserted between ผ and น.


It seems that this rule should apply: "If there are 2 consonants but no consonant cluster, โ_ะ / short [o] is the implied vowel. Foe example, รถ = r(o)t"


That is why I am confused about why the first syllable of ผนัง gets an unwritten short [a] vowel ( _ะ ) rather than an unwritten short [o] vowel ( โ_ะ ).

ThaiPod101.com Verified
Tuesday at 01:04 AM
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Hi เดวิด


Sorry, I think I get the wrong idea about your commend. You talk about tone not hidden vowel. Yes, ผลไม้, which means fruit. It's pronounced p(ŏ)n-l(á)-mái. that syllable 1 (S1) gets a rising tone, because "n" final sound of ล

read as ผล ละ ไม้ p(ŏ)n-l(á)-mái notthing effect anything in this words just stright rule apply.

ผนัง read as ผะ หนัง yes ผ effect the second syllable tone.

Hope that helps. Please let me know if you have any future questions. I will be glad to help.


Have a good day.

ปริษา Parisa

Team ThaiPod101.com

เดวิด
Thursday at 05:05 AM
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Hi Parisa,


You answered my question by explaining that "The rule is aply with hidden ะ vowel" and not when the hidden vowel is โ_ะ (short 'o' vowel).


I had no idea that the rule only applies when the hidden vowel is ะ (short 'a' vowel). Thank you for your help.


However, I am confused about when an unwritten vowel will be โ_ะ or _ะ. Here are the rules I understand about hidden vowels:


If there's no consonant cluster and there are 2 consonants, โ_ะ is the hidden vowel.


If there are 3 consonants and no written vowels, the first vowel is _ะ and the second vowel is โ_ะ.


In ผลไม้, I understand why S1 gets โ_ะ. Why does S2 get _ะ and not some other vowel, like another โ_ะ ???

ThaiPod101.com Verified
Saturday at 12:55 AM
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Hi เดวิด,


Thank you. The rule is aply with hidden ะ vowel but ผลไม้ is โ ะ not ะ Hope that helps. Please let me know if you have any future questions. I will be glad to help.


Have a good day.

ปริษา Parisa

Team ThaiPod101.com