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The Top 10 Common Thai Mistakes for Learners to Avoid

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In Thai, there’s a saying, ผิดเป็นครู (phìt-bpen-khruu), which means “learning from your mistakes.”  

Still, making mistakes can sometimes be embarrassing, so it’s better if you can avoid them in the first place.  Hence, this comprehensive guide on typical Thai language mistakes from ThaiPod101.com.

You’ll learn about mistakes in Thai grammar, vocabulary, word choice, and the appropriate use of Thai phrases. By the end of this article, you should be able to decrease the number of common Thai-English mistakes you make, or avoid them altogether!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Thai Table of Contents
  1. Similar Consonants
  2. Short and Long Vowel Sounds
  3. A Note on Tone Marks
  4. The Correct Tone for คะ (khá) and ค่ะ (khâ)
  5. False Friends
  6. ตัวผู้ (dtuua-phûu) is for Male Animals
  7. Word Order: Nouns and Adjectives
  8. Politeness Level
  9. Special Words for Monks
  10. Being Too Afraid to Speak
  11. Conclusion

1. Similar Consonants

A frequent mistake in Thai language-learning is that of confusing similar-sounding consonants. In Thai, there are many consonants that have similar sounds, and pronouncing them incorrectly can completely change the meaning of a word. Below are some examples.

1 – ข (kh) and ค (kh)

Despite having the same romanization, these two consonants have different sounds. ข (kh) sounds deeper than ค (kh), and if you use the wrong sound, this could happen:

Thai sentence: เนื้อปลาขาว ๆ น่ากินมาก
Thai pronunciation: núuea-bplaa-khǎao-khǎao-nâa-gin-mâak

Correct pronunciation meaning: “The white fish looks yummy.”
Incorrect pronunciation meaning: “The fishy fish looks yummy.”

Explanation:  

  • ขาว (khǎao) means “white” in Thai.
  • คาว (khaao) means “fishy” in Thai.

You can see that common pronunciation mistakes for Thai-learners like this one can be quite funny. 

We recommend that you listen to Thai people speaking often, so that you can learn how to pronounce these consonants correctly.

White Fish Sushi

The white fish looks yummy.

2 – ช (ch) and ฉ (ch)

Another pair of similar-sounding consonants is ช (ch) and ฉ (ch). 

Thai sentence: ฉิ่งเป็นเครื่องดนตรีไทย
Thai pronunciation: chìng-bpen-khrûueang-don-dtrii-thai

Correct pronunciation meaning: “The cymbal is a Thai musical instrument.”
Incorrect pronunciation meaning: “Running away is a Thai musical instrument.”

Explanation:  

Here’s another tip for avoiding typical Thai mistakes like this one: If there’s romanization, pay attention to the tone of the word. You may notice that, despite both words having the same tone mark, the tones are not the same.

3 – ถ (th) and ท (th)

The last pair of consonants is ถ (th) and ท (th). Here’s what a mistake in Thai might look like if you confuse them:

Thai sentence: คนให้ทั่ว ๆ นะ
Thai pronunciation: khon-hâi-thûua-thûua-ná

Correct pronunciation meaning: “Stir it thoroughly.”
Incorrect pronunciation meaning: “Stir it nut.”

Explanation:  

  • ทั่ว (thûua) means “thoroughly” in Thai.
  • ถั่ว (thùua) means “nut” in Thai.

Hopefully the examples and tips above will help you avoid these common mistakes English-speakers make in Thai!

2. Short and Long Vowel Sounds

Another common pronunciation mistake is to pronounce Thai vowels too short or too long. As there are many pairs of short and long vowels in Thai, it’s important that you pay close attention here. Pronouncing a word too short or too long can change its meaning.

1 – ุ (u) and ู (tuu)

Pronouncing ุ (u) and ู (tuu) incorrectly can lead to this weird situation:

Thai sentence: ดูเด็กคนนั้นสิ น่ารักจัง
Thai pronunciation: duu-dèk-khon-nán-sì nâa-rák-jang

Correct pronunciation meaning: “Look at that child, so cute.”
Incorrect pronunciation meaning: “Scold that child, so cute.”

Explanation:  

  • ดู (duu) means “look” in Thai.
  • ดุ () means “scold” in Thai.
Little Kid Counting on His Fingers

2 – ิ (i) and ี (ii)

ิ (i) and ี (ii) are another vowel sound pair that English-speakers often get confused by. See what happens if you use the wrong sound: 

Thai sentence: เขาเป็นช่างตีเหล็ก
Thai pronunciation: khǎo-bpen-châang-dtii-lèk

Correct pronunciation meaning: “He is a blacksmith.”
Incorrect pronunciation meaning: “He is a person who criticizes iron.”

Explanation:  

  • ตี (dtii) means “hit” in Thai.
  • ติ (dtì) means “criticize” in Thai.

3 – ะ (a) and า (aa)

The last example we’ll cover here is the pronunciation of ะ (a) and า (aa).

Thai sentence: วันนี้วันจันทร์
Thai pronunciation: wan-níi-wan-jan

Correct pronunciation meaning: “Today is Monday.”
Incorrect pronunciation meaning: “Today is Dish day.”

Explanation:  

  • จันทร์ (jan) means “moon,” or if it’s after วัน (wan), it means “Monday” in Thai.
  • จาน (jaan) means “dish” in Thai.

3. A Note on Tone Marks

Despite having the same name, you can’t use tone marks to define the tone of words. This is a common mistake in spoken Thai. There are many factors, other than tone marks, that affect the tone of a word. For example, initial consonants and vowel sounds. 

Example 1: ขา (khǎa), which means “leg” in Thai, has a rising tone despite having no tone mark.

Example 2: ซ้ำ (sám), which means “repeat,” in Thai, has a high tone despite having a falling tone mark.

Example 3: ฆ่า (khâa), which means “kill” in Thai, has a falling tone despite having a low tone mark.

4. The Correct Tone for คะ (khá) and ค่ะ (khâ)

In Thai, to be polite, females add คะ (khá) and ค่ะ (khà) to the end of sentences. However, many people use these incorrectly. This is the most common mistake in Thai, for both native Thai people and foreigners. Below are examples of how to use คะ (khá) and ค่ะ (khà) correctly.

1 – คะ (khá)

คะ (khá) is used in two conditions: 

  • After questions
  • After sentences that end with นะ ()

Example 1:  

กระดาษอยู่ที่ไหนคะ
grà-dàat-yùu-thîi-nǎi-khá
“Where is the paper?”

Example 2:  

อย่าทำแบบนี้อีกนะคะ
yàa-tham-bàaep-níi-ìik-ná-khá
“Don’t do this again.”

2 – ค่ะ (khâ)

ค่ะ (khâ) is used after affirmative and negative sentences.

Example 1:  

ฉันไม่กินเผ็ดค่ะ
chǎn-mâi-gin-phèt-khâ
I don’t eat spicy food.

Example 2:  

ฉันจะไปทะเลตอนสงกรานต์ค่ะ
chǎn-jà-bpai-thá-lee-dtaawn-sǒng-graan-khâ
“I will go to the sea during Songkran.”

Someone Swimming in the Sea with Scuba Diving Gear

5. False Friends

For those who can speak English, don’t be so happy to see or hear English words in Thai. The meanings may be very different! 

1 – Fit 

ฟิต (fít) is “too tight” in Thai, while in English, it means “not too tight or too loose.” 

  • กางเกงตัวนี้ใส่แล้วฟิตมาก 
    gaang-geeng-dtuua-níi-sài-láaeo-fít-mâak
    “These pants are too tight for me.”

2 – Over  

โอเวอร์ (oo-vôoe) is “exaggerate” in Thai, while in English, it means “end.” 

  • เรื่องที่เธอเล่ามันโอเวอร์มาก
    rûueang-thîi-thooe-lâo-man-oo-vôoe-mâak
    “The story you told is exaggerated.”

6. ตัวผู้ (dtuua-phûu) is for Male Animals

Another Thai word mistake you should know has to do with ตัวผู้ (dtuua-phûu). This word is used for male animals in Thai

When you start learning the language, you may learn that เมีย (miia) is “wife” in informal Thai and ผัว (phǔua) is “husband.” However, when it comes to animals, Thai people put ตัวเมีย (dtuua-miia) after the animal’s name to specify that the animal is female. You may see this, and think that you should use ตัวผัว (dtuua-phǔua) to specify that the animal is male, but this is incorrect! Instead, you should put ตัวผู้ (dtuua-phûu).

Example:  

  • สิงโตตัวผู้ (sǐng-dtoo-dtuua-phûu) is “male lion” in Thai.
  • สิงโตตัวเมีย (sǐng-dtoo-dtuua-miia) is “female lion” in Thai.
A Lion Roaring

7. Word Order: Nouns and Adjectives

Now, let’s talk about common Thai grammar mistakes that foreigners often make. 

In English, adjectives are put in front of nouns; in Thai, it’s the other way around.  

Example 1:  

ดอกไม้สีขาวมีกลิ่นหอม
dâawk-mái-sǐi-khǎao-mii-glìn-hǎawm
“The white flowers smell nice.”

A Bunch of Small White Flowers

Example 2:  

แม่ชอบผลไม้เปรี้ยว ๆ มากกว่าผลไม้หวาน ๆ
mâae-châawp-phǒn-lá-mái-bprîiao-bprîiao-mâak-gwàa-phǒn-lá-mái-wǎan-wǎan
“Mom likes sour fruit more than sweet fruit.”

8. Politeness Level

Politeness level is the source of many common Thai-English mistakes. In Thai, there are many words that mean the same thing but have different levels of politeness, which you may know already if you’ve studied Thai pronouns. Thus, it’s important to use the right words in the right situations. Using the wrong words can be both inappropriate and funny.

Example 1:  

คุณครูกินข้าวเที่ยงรึยังคะ
khun-khruu-gin-khâao-thîiang-rúe-yang-khá
“Have you had lunch yet?” (Talking to a teacher)

Explanation:  

The situation here is that a student is talking to a teacher. Thus, the student should ask the teacher this question in a polite manner. The student has already put คะ (khá) after the question, which is good. However, instead of using กิน (gin), it would have been better to use รับประทาน (ráp-bprà-thaan). And instead of using ข้าวเที่ยง (khâao-thîiang), the student should have used อาหารกลางวัน (aa-hǎan-glaang-wan).

Appropriate Thai sentence:  

คุณครูรับประทานอาหารกลางวันรึยังคะ
khun-khruu-thaan-aa-hǎan-glaang-wan-rúe-yang-khá
“Have you had lunch yet?” (Talking to a teacher)

Example 2:  

เธอมีบุตรกี่คน
thooe-mii-bùt-gìi-khon
“How many sons and daughters do you have?”

Explanation:  

Here, two friends are having a conversation. The speaker must be close to the other party, as there’s no ครับ (khráp) or คะ (khá) at the end of the sentence. In this case, using บุตร (bùt), which means “son” or “daughter,” is too polite. Instead, the speaker should have used ลูก (lûuk), which has the same meaning but sounds better.

Appropriate Thai sentence:  

เธอมีลูกกี่คน
thooe-mii-lûuk-gìi-khon
“How many sons and daughters do you have?”

9. Special Words for Monks

In Thai language, we have special words for monks which include pronouns and verbs. This is a part of คำราชาศัพท์ (kham-raa-chaa-sàp). Don’t be confused if you hear some words you are not familiar with when the topic involves monks in Thai.  Also, it is a good idea to learn basic words related to monks so that you won’t make common Thai mistakes.

Example 1:  

พระกำลังสวดมนต์อยู่
phrá-gam-lang-sùuat-mon-yùu
“The monks are praying.”

The Monks Are Praying

Explanation:  

สวดมนต์ (sùuat-mon) is “pray” in Thai, but it should be used with normal people. For monks, instead of using สวดมนต์ (sùuat-mon), Thai people use ทำวัตร (tham-wát).

Appropriate Thai sentence:  

พระกำลังทำวัตรอยู่
phrá-gam-lang-tham-wát-yùu
“The monks are praying.”

Example 2:  

พระไม่กินอาหารเย็น
phrá-mâi-gin-aa-hǎan-yen
“The monk didn’t have dinner.”

Explanation:  

กิน (gin) is “eat” in Thai, but it should be used with normal people. For monks, instead of using กิน (gin), Thai people use ฉัน (chǎn).

Appropriate Thai sentence:  

พระไม่ฉันอาหารเย็น
phrá-mâi-chǎn-aa-hǎan-yen
“The monk didn’t have dinner.”

10. Being Too Afraid to Speak

The biggest mistake in learning Thai is being too afraid to speak with natives. 

Don’t be afraid to speak, even if Thai people don’t seem to understand what you’re saying. Thai pronunciation is hard and Thai people know this. Actually, most Thai people find it cute when they hear foreigners trying to speak Thai, and they’ll try their best to understand. 

11. Conclusion

After finishing this lesson, we hope you can avoid making these common Thai mistakes. Have you ever made one of these Thai mistakes before? What did you feel? Let us know in the comments! 

Do you already know what you’re going to study next in your Thai learning? If you’re not sure, here are some suggestions:

Or you can visit ThaiPod101.com and choose another lesson that interests you.

Happy Thai learning!

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Basic Thai Questions and Answers You Should Know

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As a new Thai language-learner, do you find it hard to make conversation with native speakers? Because speaking Thai as often as possible is a great way to acquire the language, knowing the most common questions and answers in Thai conversations will be very helpful for you.  

Having a Thai Conversation

In this lesson, you’ll learn about asking questions in Thai and how you can answer them yourself. Knowing these common Thai questions and answers will give you the confidence you need to practice speaking more often! 

However, before we start our list of the top ten questions in Thai, there are a few things you need to know first.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Thai Table of Contents
  1. An Overview of Asking Questions in Thai
  2. Our Thai Questions and Answers List
  3. Conclusion

1. An Overview of Asking Questions in Thai

First things first! We’ll answer some common Thai grammar questions that learners have, and introduce you to the basic vocabulary you should know.   

1 – Thai Question Marks 

When going over the topic of Thai questions, many learners wonder “Are there question marks in Thai?” The answer is yes, there are question marks in the Thai language.  

In Thai, question marks are called ปรัศนี (bpràt-sà-nii) and เครื่องหมายคำถาม (khrùueng-mǎai-kham-thǎam). In normal conversations, people usually use เครื่องหมายคำถาม (khrùueng-mǎai-kham-thǎam). ปรัศนี (bpràt-sà-nii) is rarely used in daily conversation; it’s only used in academic contexts.  

That said, there’s no rule about asking questions in Thai grammar that requires you to put a question mark after your question. Thai people really only put question marks after a question to show that they’re really in doubt and want to know the answer.

2 – Pronouns Used in Thai Questions and Answers

When you ask or answer questions in Thai, you can use both names and pronouns, so you’ll find it easier if you know some Thai pronouns. Below are some examples of pronouns often used in Thai questions and answers.

Thai pronouns for you:

  • คุณ (khun) is used in formal or business situations. It can be used with both males and females.
  • นาย (naai) is used in casual situations. It can be used with males only.
  • เธอ (thooe) is used in casual situations. It can be used with females only.

Thai pronouns for I:

  • ฉัน (chǎn) is used when the speaker is female.
  • ผม (phǒm) is used when the speaker is male.

You’ll find throughout this lesson that Thai people often omit the subject from the sentence, so don’t be surprised if you don’t hear any name or pronoun when speaking with natives.

3 – Making Questions and Answers Formal

To make a sentence formal in Thai, put the word ครับ (khráp) or ค่ะ (khâ) at the end of a sentence when speaking. ครับ (khráp) is used when the speaker is male, while ค่ะ (khâ) is used when the speaker is female. 

Keep in mind that there’s a special rule when it comes to questions: for females, instead of using ค่ะ (khâ), you put คะ (khá) after questions.

Now, let’s start learning ten common Thai phrases and questions.

2. Our Thai Questions and Answers List

First Encounter

1. What’s your name? 

The first question you should learn is how to ask for someone’s name. This is an easy question to ask in Thai, and it’s a great way to start a conversation with someone you don’t know.

1 – Thai question

Question pattern:
pronoun for “you” / noun + ชื่ออะไร
pronoun for “you” / noun + chûue-à-rai
“What is your name?”

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1:
pronoun for “I” + ชื่อ + ___
pronoun for “I” + chûue + ___
“My name is ___.”

Answer pattern 2:
ชื่อ + ___
chûue + ___
“My name is ___.”

Answer pattern 3:
Just say your name.

Additional Note:  
Patterns 2 and 3 are short versions of pattern 1, which is the full answer. Of the three patterns, pattern 1 is the most formal, followed by pattern 2, with pattern 3 being the most casual.

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
ลูกค้าชื่ออะไรคะ
lûuk-khaa-chûue-à-rai-khá
“What is the customer’s name?” (You are talking to the customer.)

Thai answer:  
ผมชื่อป้องศักดิ์ครับ
phǒm-chûue-bpâawng-sàk-khráp
“My name is Pongsak.”

Example 2

Thai question:  
เธอชื่ออะไร
thooe-chûue-à-rai
“What is your name?”

Thai answer:  
กิ๊ฟ
gíp
“Gip.”

2. Where are you from? 

To learn more about someone, one of the best Thai language questions to ask is “Where are you from?” There are a few ways to ask this question, shown below.

1 – Thai questions

Question pattern 1:  
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + มาจากที่ไหน
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + maa-jàak-thîi-nǎi
“Where are you from?”

Question pattern 2:  
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + เป็นคนจังหวัดอะไร
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + bpen-khon-jang-wàt-à-rai
“Which province are you from?”

Question pattern 3:  
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + เป็นคนประเทศอะไร
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + bpen-khon-bprà-thêet-à-rai
“Which country are you from?”

Additional Note:  
When Thai people are asked where they come from, they often answer with the name of the province they grew up in. Thus, you can use pattern 2 specifically with a Thai person. Pattern 3, as you can guess, is used with foreigners.

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1:  
pronoun for “I” + มาจาก + ___
pronoun for “I” + maa-jàak + ___
“I come from ___.”

Answer pattern 2
มาจาก + ___
maa-jàak + ___
“I come from ___.”

Answer pattern 3:  
Just say the name of your hometown or country.

Additional Note:  
Patterns 1 through 3 can be used to answer all of the questions above. Patterns 2 and 3 are the short versions of pattern 1, which is the full answer. Pattern 1 is the most formal, followed by pattern 2, with pattern 3 being the most casual.

Answer pattern 4:  
pronoun for “I” + เป็นคน + name of province or country
pronoun for “I” + bpen-khon + ___
“I come from ___.”

Answer pattern 5:  
คน + name of province or country
khon + ___
“I am ___.”

Additional Note:  
Patterns 4 and 5 are used to answer question patterns 2 and 3 only. As you can see, pattern 5 is the short version of pattern 4.

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
เดวิดมาจากที่ไหน
dee-vìt-maa-jàak-thîi-nǎi
“Where are you from?” (You are talking to David.)

Thai answer:  
มาจากออสเตเรียครับ
maa-jàak-áawt-dtee-riia
“I come from Australia.”

Example 2

Thai question:  
นักเรียนเป็นคนจังหวัดอะไร
nák-riian-bpen-khon-jang-wàt-à-rai
“Which province are you from?” (You are talking to a student.)

Thai answer:  
คนลพบุรีค่ะ
khon lóp-bù-rii khà
“I come from Lopburi.”

3. Do you speak ___? 

This is one of the best Thai questions for foreigners. Knowing the language skills of other parties makes it easier to communicate, in case you can speak the same language. ^^

1 – Thai question

Question pattern:  
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + พูดภาษา___ได้มั้ย
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + phûut-phaa-sǎa-___-dâi-mái
“Do you speak ___?”

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1:  
ได้
dâi
“Yes.”

Answer pattern 2:  
ได้นิดหน่อย
dâi-nit-nàauy
“Yes, a little bit.”

Answer pattern 3:  
ไม่ได้
mâi-dâi
“No.”

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
ลดาพูดภาษาจีนได้มั้ย
lá-daa-phûut-phaa-sǎa-jiin-dâi-mái
“Does Lada speak Chinese?”

Thai answer:  
ได้นิดหน่อย
dâi-nit-nàauy
“Yes, a little bit.”

Example 2

Thai question:  
น้ำตาลพูดภาษาอังกฤษได้มั้ย
nám-dtaan-phûut-phaa-sǎa-ang-grìt-dâi-mái
Does Namtarn speak English?

Thai answer:  
ได้ หนูเคยไปเรียนที่อเมริกา 3 ปี
dai nǔu-khooei-bpai-riian-thii-a-mee-ri-gaa-saam-bpii
“Yes, I do. I have studied in the United States for three years.”

4. How long have you been studying ___? 

To continue the conversation, you can ask this question in Thai.

1 – Thai questions

Question pattern 1:  
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + เรียนภาษา___มานานเท่าไหร่แล้ว
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + riian-phaa-sǎa-___-maa-naan-thâo-rài-láaeo
“How long have you been studying ___?”

Question pattern 2:  
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + เรียนภาษา___มากี่ปีแล้ว
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + riian-phaa-sǎa-___-maa-gìi-bpii-láaeo
“How many years have you been studying ___?”

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1:  
pronoun for “I” + เรียนมา ___ ปี / เดือน
pronoun for “I” + riian-maa-___-bpii / duuean
“I have studied for ___ years / months.”

Answer pattern 2:  
เรียนมา ___ ปี / เดือน
riian-maa-___-bpii / duuean
“I have studied for ___ years / months.”

Answer pattern 3:  
pronoun for “I” + เรียนมาตั้งแต่อายุ ___ ปีแล้ว
pronoun for “I” + riian-maa-dtâng-dtàae-aa-yú-___-bpii-lâaeo
“I have studied since I was ___ years old.”

Answer pattern 4:  
เรียนมาตั้งแต่อายุ ___ ขวบ / ปีแล้ว
Riian-maa-dtâng-dtàae-aa-yú-___-khùuap / bpii-lâaeo
“I have studied since I was ___ years old.”

Pattern 2 is the short version of pattern 1, and pattern 4 is the short version of pattern 3. The subject of the sentence is omitted as Thai people assume you already know who you’re talking about.

ขวบ (khùuap) and ปี (bpii) are both numeric classifiers of age. ขวบ (khùuap) is used for ages under thirteen years old, while ปี (bpii) is used for ages thirteen years old and above.

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
มิกิเรียนภาษาไทยมานานกี่ปีแล้วคะ
mí-gì-riian-phaa-sǎa-thai-maa-naan-gìi-bpii-láaeo-khá
How many years has Miki studied the Thai language?” (You are talking to Miki.)

Thai answer:  
เรียนมา 2 ปีแล้ว
riian-maa-sǎawng-bpii-láaeo-khà
“I have studied Thai for two years now.”

Example 2

Thai question:  
คุณเรียนภาษาอังกฤษมานานเท่าไหร่แล้วครับ
khun-riian-phaa-sǎa-ang-grìt-maa-naan-thâo-rài-láaeo-khráp
“How long have you studied English?”

Thai answer:  
ฉันเรียนภาษาอังกฤษมาตั้งแต่อายุ 3 ขวบค่ะ
chǎn-riian-phaa-sǎa-ang-grìt-maa-dtâng-dtàae-aa-yú-sǎam-khûuap-khà
“I have studied English since I was three years old.”

5. Have you been to ___? 

This is another conversational Thai question you should know, and you’re likely to hear it from travel enthusiasts! 

1 – Thai question

Question pattern:  
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + เคยไปประเทศ___มั้ย
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + khooei-bpai-bprà-thêet-___-mái
“Have you been to ___?”

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1
เคย
khooei
“Yes, I have.”

Answer pattern 2:  
ไม่เคย
mâi-khooei
“No, I haven’t.”

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
คุณป้าเคยไปประเทศญี่ปุ่นมั้ยคะ
khun-bpâa-khooei-bpai-bprà-thêet-yîi-bpùn-mái-khá
“Have you been to Japan?” (You are talking to your aunt.)

Thai answer:  
เคยจ๊ะ ปีที่แล้วป้าไปเที่ยวที่โตเกียวมา
khooei-já pbii-thîi-láaeo-bpâa-bpai-thîiao-thîi-dtoo-giiao-maa
“Yes, I have. I traveled to Tokyo last year.”

Example 2

Thai question:  
เธอเคยไปอยุธยามั้ย
thooe-khooei-bpai-à-yút-thá-yaa-mái
Have you been to Ayutthaya?

Thai answer:  
ไม่เคย แต่อยากไปมากนะ
mâi-khooei dtàae-yàak-bpai-mâak-ná
“No, I haven’t. But I really want to go there.”

Introducing Yourself

6. What do you do for work? 

If you’re asking questions in Thai to get to know more about someone, asking about their occupation is a must.  Good news: This conversational question in Thai is very easy.

1 – Thai question

Question pattern:  
pronoun for “you” / name + ทำอาชีพอะไร
pronoun for “you” / name + tham-aa-chîip-à-rai
What do you do for work?

2 – Thai answer

Answer pattern
pronoun for “I” + เป็น ___
pronoun for “I” + bpen ___
“I am a(n) ___.”

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
คุณธัญญ์ทำอาชีพอะไรคะ
khun-than-tham-aa-chîip-à-rai-khá
“What does Than do for work?” (You are talking to Than.)

Thai answer:  
ผมเป็นวิศวกรครับ
khun-than-tham-aa-chîip-à-rai-khá
“I am an engineer.”

I am an Engineer
Example 2

Thai question:  
นายทำอาชีพอะไร
naai-tham-aa-chîip-à-rai
“What do you do for work?”

Thai answer:  
ผมเป็นครู
phǒm-bpen-khruu
“I am a teacher.”

7. Do you like ___ food? 

Asking someone about their food preferences is a fantastic way to get to know someone, and to find common ground.  

1 – Thai question

Question pattern:  
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + ชอบอาหาร___มั้ย
pronoun for “you” / noun / name + châawp-aa-hǎan-___-mái
“Do you like ___ food?”

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1
ชอบ
châawp
“Yes, I do.”

Answer pattern 2:  
ไม่ชอบ
mâi-châawp
“No, I don’t.”

Answer pattern 3:  
เฉย ๆ
chǒoei-chǒoei
“Indifferent.”

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
คุณครูชอบอาหารอินเดียมั้ยคะ
khun-khruu-châawp-aa-hǎan-in-diia-mái-khá
“Do you like Indian food?” (You are talking to a teacher.)

Thai answer:  
ชอบครับ หอมกลิ่นเครื่องเทศดี
châawp-khráp hǎawm-glìn-khrûueng-thêet-dii
“Yes, I do. The spices smell nice.”

Example 2

Thai question:  
โคลอี้ชอบอาหารไทยมั้ย
khloo-îi-châawp-aa-hǎan-thai-mái
“Do you like Thai food?” (You are talking to Chole.)

Thai answer:  
เฉย ๆ เพราะฉันทานเผ็ดไม่ได้
chǒoei-chǒoei phráw-chǎn-thaan-phèt-mâi-dâi
“I’m indifferent because I can’t eat spicy food.”

8. What are you doing?

This question can be used to start a conversation with someone, and to show that you’re interested in their life. 

1 – Thai question

Question pattern:  
pronoun for “you” / noun + ทำอะไรอยู่
pronoun for “you” / noun + tham-à-rai-yùu
“What are you doing?”

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1
pronoun for “I” + กำลัง + verb + อยู่
pronoun for “I” + gam-lang + verb + yùu
“I am ___ now.”

Answer pattern 2
verb + อยู่
verb + yùu
“I am ___ now.”

Additional note:  
Pattern 2 is the short version of pattern 1. The subject of the sentence is omitted as Thai people assume you already know who you’re talking about.

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
นักเรียนทำอะไรอยู่คะ
nák-riian-tham-à-rai-yùu-kha
“What are you doing?” (You are talking to a student.)

Thai answer:  
หนูกำลังทำการบ้านอยู่ค่ะ
nǔu-gam-lang-tham-gaan-bâan-yùu-khà
“I am doing homework now.”

I am Doing Homework Now
Example 2

Thai question:  
แม่ทำอะไรอยู่
mâae-tham-à-rai-yùu
“Mom, what are you doing?”

Thai answer:  
อาบน้ำอยู่
àap-nám-yùu
I’m taking a shower.”

9. What is wrong? 

To ask someone what’s wrong, there are a few different questions in Thai that you can use. 

1 – Thai questions

Question pattern 1:  
เกิดอะไรขึ้น
gòoet-à-rai-khûen
“What’s happened? What’s wrong?”

The literal meaning of this pattern is “What’s happened?” You ask this when you sense that something bad has happened and you want to know what it is.

Question pattern 2:  
มีปัญหาอะไรรึเปล่า
mii-bpan-hǎa-à-rai-rúe-bplào
“Is there any problem?”

This is another way to ask “What’s wrong?” when you sense that something bad happened.

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1
Explain your problem or issues.

Answer pattern 2
ไม่มีอะไร
mâi-mii-à-rai
“Nothing wrong, no problem.”

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
เสียงดังอะไรกัน มีปัญหาอะไรรึเปล่า
sǐiang-dang-à-rai-gan mii-bpan-hǎa-à-rai-rúe-bplào
“What is that loud noise? Is there any problem?”

Thai answer:  
ไม่มีอะไร ของตกเฉย ๆ
mâi-mii-à-rai khǎawng-dtok-chǒoei-chǒoei
“No problem. Something just fell.”

Example 2

Thai question:  
เกิดอะไรขึ้น ทำไมเธอถึงร้องไห้
gòoet-à-rai-khûen tham-mai-thooe-thǔeng-ráawng-hâi
“What’s wrong? Why are you crying?

Thai answer:  
มีคนบอกว่าแฟนนอกใจฉัน
mii-khon-bàawk-wâa-faaen-nâawk-jai-chǎn
“Someone told me my boyfriend cheated on me.”

What’s Wrong? Why Are You Crying?

10. How much is ___? 

Asking for the price of products and services is an important conversational skill to have in any country. Here are the Thai questions and answers you can use! 

1 – Thai questions

Question pattern 1:  
noun / pronoun + ราคาเท่าไหร่
noun / pronoun + raa-khaa-thâo-rài
“How much is noun/pronoun?”

Question pattern 2:  
noun / pronoun + ราคากี่บาท
noun / pronoun + raa-khaa-gìi-bàat
“How much is noun/pronoun?”

Despite having the same meaning, pattern 1 is more formal than pattern 2.

2 – Thai answers

Answer pattern 1
noun / pronoun + ราคา ___ บาท
noun / pronoun + raa-khaa-___-bàat
“Noun / pronoun is ___ Baht.”

Answer pattern 2
___ บาท
___-bàat
“___ Baht.”

Pattern 2 is the short version of pattern 1.

3 – Examples

Example 1

Thai question:  
กะหล่ำปลีราคากี่บาท
gà-làm-bplii-raa-khaa-gìi-bàat
“How much is the cabbage?”

Thai answer:  
30 บาท
sǎam-sìp-bàat
“30 Baht.”

Example 2

Thai question:  
รถคันนี้ราคาเท่าไหร่ครับ
rót-khan-níi-raa-khaa-thâo-rài-khráp
“How much is this car?”

Thai answer:  
รถคันนั้นราคา 500,000 บาทค่ะ
rót-khan-nán-raa-khaa-hâa-sǎaen-bàat-khà
“That car costs 500,000 Baht.”

11. Conclusion

You’ve just finished learning the basics about how to ask questions in Thai. If you can remember all of these common questions and answers, you have all you need to practice your Thai speaking and listening skills through conversations with Thai people. We hope this article has been very helpful for you! 

Now that you’ve finished this lesson, you may be curious about related topics such as question words in Thai,  which you can learn on ThaiPod101.com as well. Of course, there are other interesting lessons for you to study, such as Thai Girl’s Dream Job and Thai Jokes. Don’t forget to visit ThaiPod101.com and check out new lessons as they become available. 

Before you go, practice writing some of these Thai questions and answers in the comments section, and answer the questions about yourself. We look forward to hearing from you!

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The Best Guide for Passing a Thai Competency Test

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When you’re learning something, a test is considered a part of the learning process. Taking a test shows your current skills and improvements you’ve made in that topic; at the same time, it reveals areas that still need improvement. For Thai learners, taking a Thai competency test is a good idea.  

The most popular Thai language proficiency test is the CU-TFL. Thus, in this lesson, we’ll give you practical information about this Thai language competency test, including details about each part and when, where, and how to register to take the test. Of course, we’ll also provide you with some tips on how to pass this Thai exam.  

Let’s get started.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Study Strategies in Thai Table of Contents
  1. General Information About the CU-TFL
  2. A Breakdown of Each Section
  3. Tips on Preparing for a Thai Proficiency Exam
  4. Conclusion

1. General Information About the CU-TFL

Language Skills

If you want to work in Thailand, you’re in luck! Aside from some professional jobs, most of the jobs available for foreigners don’t require many Thai language skills. Jobs for foreigners in Thailand are normally in environments where workers can speak English. Still, you have a life outside of work, which inevitably requires you to have basic knowledge of the Thai language. As mentioned above, testing your Thai skills enables you to see how much you know so you can continue improving.  

The most common Thai language exam for foreigners is the CU-TFL, which stands for “The Chulalongkorn University Proficiency Test of Thai as a Foreign Language.” It’s the most popular Thai language assessment test. For your information, Chulalongkorn University is one of the top three universities in Thailand. In a way, the university’s high status makes the test more reputable.

The test is taken at The Sirindhorn Thai Language Institute. Applicants must contact the institute to schedule the test date (at least two weeks in advance) before filling out the online application. Then, the applicant will receive the bill payment slip, and must make a payment at least three days prior to the test date. The CU-TFL test has four sections: listening, reading, writing, and speaking. This test classifies the examinee into one of five groups: distinguished, superior, advanced, intermediate, and novice. 

In the following sections, we’ll provide you with a complete guide on this Thai language proficiency exam. 

2. A Breakdown of Each Section

1- Listening Section 

Duration: 60 minutes

Number of questions: 

  • 50 multiple-choice questions
  • Part 1: 1-3 announcements and short articles
  • Part 2: 2-3 announcements and medium-length articles
  • Part 3: 2-3 news excerpts, event descriptions, and documentaries
  • Part 4: 1-2 medium-length conversations about opinion expression or an interview of two people
  • Part 5: 1 long conversation about opinion expression or an interview of three people

Skills and competencies needed: 

  • Be able to understand short conversations, announcements, interviews, or advertisements
  • Be able to comprehend and summarize a story
  • Be able to analyze a story

Instructions:  

  • You’ll get three sets of paper: the test, a sheet to mark your answers, and paper for note-taking.
  • Before the test begins, you’ll hear the explanation, instructions, and be given a sample question. 
  • Once the test begins, you’ll hear a conversation or story, followed by questions and four choices. You’ll hear the story/conversation, questions, and choices only once.
Practice for the Listening Test

2- Reading Section 

Duration: 60 minutes

Number of questions: 

  • 50 multiple-choice questions
  • Part 1: 1-3 signs and short announcements
  • Part 2: 2-3 medium-length announcements 
  • Part 3: 2-3 news excerpts, event descriptions, medium-length documentaries, or academic articles
  • Part 4: 1-2 conversations about opinion expression 
  • Part 5: 1 news critique, editorial, or academic article

Skills and competencies needed:  

  • Be able to understand a story, as well as punctuation and numbers used in daily life
  • Be able to understand the reference in a story
  • Be able to comprehend and summarize a story
  • Be able to analyze a story
  • Be able to understand the story and analyze it based on knowledge of Thai society and culture

Instructions:  

  • You’ll get two sets of paper: the test and the answer sheet.
  • There’s no time limit for each part, so you can allocate time for the five parts yourself.

3- Writing Section 

Duration: 60 minutes

Number of questions: Write one essay to express your opinion on a given topic.

Skills and competencies needed: 

  • Be able to understand a story, as well as punctuation and numbers used in daily life
  • Be able to write as requested 
  • Be able to spell and punctuate, use vocabulary and sentence structure, and choose the appropriate language level
  • Know the types of articles and their structures
  • Be able to use proper written Thai with the audience in mind
  • Be able to use daily-life idioms

Instructions: You’ll get two sets of paper: the test and the answer sheet.

Write an Essay to Express Your Opinion

4- Speaking Section 

Duration: 40 minutes

Number of questions:  

  • An unknown number of questions, divided into three parts
  • Part 1: Have conversations with the tester
  • Part 2: Report and express your opinion (speak alone) 
  • Part 3: Interview the tester and summarize information

Skills and competencies needed:  

  • Be able to pronounce correctly, choose the proper words, idioms, and sentence structures, and respond to the examiner
  • Be able to use the right language level for the situation and audience
  • Be able to have a fluent conversation 
  • Be able to express your opinion on various topics
  • Be able to ask for information about the assigned topic
  • Be able to summarize information

Instructions:  

  • You will be recorded during the test.
  • There will be only one applicant per test.
  • The tester is an educated Thai person who uses Thai as their native language.

3. Tips on Preparing for a Thai Proficiency Exam

To do well on any Thai language exam, you need to practice a lot! Below, we’ve outlined a few ways you can do this effectively. 

1 – Read signs, announcements, news excerpts, and articles in Thai.

If you live in Thailand, pay attention to the signs, announcements, snippets of news, and articles around you.  These are a part of everyday life in Thailand, so they’ll definitely be included on the test. We suggest that whenever you see a sign, you learn what it means and think about where else you might find it. This will significantly help you in the reading and listening sections.

Pay Attention to Signs

 2 – Watch a variety of shows and dramas in Thai.

To improve your listening and speaking skills, you need to be able to understand how Thais speak in daily life. One of the best ways to do so is to watch a variety of Thai shows and dramas. This is a fun activity that allows you to watch media that fits your interests! 

You’ll be able to hear the accent of native Thai speakers and become more familiar with Thai sentence structure. This will, in turn, help you improve your own speaking skills. 

You’ll also get to know more about Thai society and culture, which will indirectly help you understand more about Thai people, leading to a better test score. Nowadays, you can watch a variety of shows and dramas online on YouTube, on live TV, on Thai Netflix, and more. 

3 – Study the basic Thai social norms, and learn about the society and culture.

To do well on your Thai competency test, you need to understand some of the Thai social norms, as well as the society and culture. You can learn about these topics in various ways, such as watching shows (like we mentioned above), talking to Thai people, and reading related books.

Learn about Thai Culture

4 -Talk to Thai people about various topics.

As mentioned above, talking to Thai people can help you learn about Thai social norms, society, and culture.  But the benefits don’t end there! Talking to Thai people will help you learn how to express your opinions more fluently; this will give you a huge advantage when it comes time for the speaking portion of the test. Also, the more you make conversation, the better your speaking and listening skills will become.

Talk about Thai Boxing

5 – Practice writing about different topics in Thai.

To do well in the writing section, you have to practice a lot. On the test, you’ll be asked to write one article that expresses your opinion on a given topic, so you need to practice writing about various topics. In addition, you’ll need to learn related vocabulary and sentence structures to write a good essay.

6 – Do a lot of test exercises.

Last but not least, you need to do a lot of test exercises. Like with every other test, practicing helps you do better. By doing a CU-TFL test sample, you’ll become more familiar with the questions, work on allocating your time better, and finish the real test more efficiently. You can buy a CU-TFL book to do Thai language practice tests, or download the test example from the manual.

4. Conclusion

We hope that after reading this complete guide to the CU-TFL Thai language proficiency test, you have a better idea of how to pass it with flying colors. Please let us know your thoughts about the CU-TFL in the comments, and let us know if you have any questions. 

And don’t forget to check out other interesting lessons on ThaiPod101.com. We have tons of lessons on the Thai language, culture, and traditions that you should take a look at! We recommend our lessons about the New Year resolutions of Thai people and talking about family in Thai

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Basic Thai Sentence Patterns – A Comprehensive Guide

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When you learn any language, knowing its basic sentence patterns helps you get a grip of the language as a whole, and allows you to communicate more effectively. So if you’re a Thai learner and don’t know how to form sentences in Thai yet, knowing certain Thai sentence structures and patterns is like a shortcut to creating your own sentences.  

In this lesson, we’ll teach you common Thai sentence patterns that you can use in daily life. While there are various types of sentence patterns in the Thai language, we’ll focus on just ten patterns with examples. Also keep in mind that we won’t be focusing on the tenses today. 

Let’s get started!

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Thai Table of Contents
  1. Linking Two Nouns: A is B
  2. Describing Nouns: A is [Adjective]
  3. [Subject] Wants / Needs
  4. [Subject] has to [Verb]
  5. [Subject] Likes [Noun/Verb]
  6. Please…
  7. May I? / Can I?
  8. What is…?
  9. When is…?
  10. Where is…?
  11. Conclusion

1. Linking Two Nouns: A is B

Before we give you our list of Thai sentence patterns, we think you should know some basic vocabulary:  

  • รูปแบบประโยค (rûup-bàaep-bprà-yòok) is “sentence pattern”
  • รูปแบบ (rûup-bàaep) is “pattern” 
  • ประโยค (bprà-yòok) is “sentence” 
Sentence Patterns

The first simple Thai sentence pattern you should know is “A is B,” which is used for linking two nouns. Below are some examples of this Thai sentence structure.

Sentence structure
A + เป็น (bpen) + B
A + คือ (khuue) + B

Explanation:  

เป็น (bpen), อยู่ (yùu), and คือ (khuue) are used for the verb “to be” in Thai. While they all refer to the same verb, เป็น (bpen), อยู่ (yùu), and คือ (khuue) have different meanings, are used in different situations, and can’t substitute one another.  

  • เป็น (bpen) is used to explain what A is. The information used to explain A can include things such as a person’s job or marital status.
  • อยู่ (yùu) is used to explain where A is. So in this case, B is the place.
  • คือ (khuue) is used to explain what A is. The information used to explain A is either a fact/status that doesn’t change, or information that other parties don’t know.

Because เป็น (bpen) and คือ (khuue) seem pretty similar, it can be difficult to decide which one to use in a given scenario. Even Thai people find this hard; they can use it correctly, but can’t explain why. Let’s look at some Thai example sentences to help you understand better.  

Example 1:  
แม่เป็นครู
mâae-bpen-khruu
“Mom is a teacher.”

A Teacher Carrying a Stack of Books

Mom is a teacher.

Example 2:  
แก้วเป็นสาวโสด
gâaew-bpen-sǎao-sòot
“Kaew is a single lady.”

Example 3:  
ฤทธิเป็นคนที่ไม่เก่งเลขเลย
rít-bpen-khon-thîi-mâi-gèng-lêek-looei
“Rit is a person who is not good at math.”

Example 4:  
ตอนนี้รัตน์อยู่ที่นี่
dtaawn-níi-rát-yùu-thîi-nîi
“Rat is here now.”

Example 5:  
กระเป๋าอยู่บนโต๊ะทานอาหาร
grà-bpǎo-yùu-bon-dtó-thaan-aa-hǎan
“The bag is on the dining table.”

Example 6:  
หมีแพนด้าอยู่ในสวนสัตว์ที่เชียงใหม่
mǐi-phaaen-dâa-yùu-nai-sǔuan-sàt-thîi-chiiang-mài
“Pandas are in the zoo at Chaingmai.”

Example 7:  
ที่นี่คือโรงพยาบาลที่ใหญ่ที่สุดในจังหวัด
thîi-nîi-khuue-roong-phá-yaa-baan-thîi-yài-thîi-sùt-nai-jang-wàt
“Here is the largest hospital in the province.”

Hospital Workers and a Patient in a Hallway

Here is the largest hospital in the province.

Example 8:  
ลัดดาคือเพื่อนที่ดีที่สุดของฉัน
lát-daa-khuue-phûuean-thîi-dii-thîi-sùt-khǎawng-chǎn
“Ladda is my best friend.”

Example 9:  
ผลไม้ที่พ่อชอบกินที่สุดคือแตงโม
phǒn-lá-mái-thîi-phâaw-châawp-gin-thîi-sùt-khuue-dtaaeng-moo
“Dad’s favorite fruit is watermelon.”

2. Describing Nouns: A is [Adjective]

Another Thai sentence construction you should know is “A is [Adjective].” This is a very easy Thai sentence pattern, used to describe nouns with adjectives. Let’s take a look.

Sentence structure:  

Noun + Adjective

Explanation:  

If you want to describe a noun, all you have to do is put the adjective after that noun.

Example 1:  
กานดาสูงและผอม
gaan-daa-sǔung-láe-phǎawm
“Ganda is tall and slim.”

Example 2:  
เก้าอี้ไม้ตัวนั้นราคาแพงมาก
gâo-îi-mái-dtuua-nán-raa-khaa-phaaeng-mâak
“That wooden chair is very expensive.”

Example 3:  
มะระสีเขียวและมีรสขม
má-rá-mii-sǐi-khǐiao-láe-mii-rót-khǒm
Bitter melon is green and bitter.”

Additional note:  

มะระ (má-rá) is “bitter melon” in Thai. It’s one of the fruits that Thai people like to eat.

Sentence Components

3. [Subject] Wants / Needs

Some of the most useful Thai phrases are those for expressing “want” and “need.” There are a few different Thai sentence patterns you should remember for this.

Sentence structure:  
subject + ต้องการ (dtâawng-gaan) + noun / verb
subject + อยาก (yàak) + verb
subject + อยากได้ (yàak-dâi) + noun 

Explanation:  

ต้องการ (dtâawng-gaan), อยาก (yàak), and อยากได้ (yàak-dâi) mean both “want” and “need” in Thai, and can substitute one another.

However, ต้องการ (dtâawng-gaan) sounds more formal than อยาก (yàak) and อยากได้ (yàak-dâi). Thai people often use ต้องการ (dtâawng-gaan) in formal situations, and อยาก (yàak) and อยากได้ (yàak-dâi) in casual conversations.  

To express your wants and needs, you can use any of the structures above. Here are a few Thai sentence examples for you.

Example 1:  
คุณครูต้องการคอมพิวเตอร์เครื่องใหม่
khun-khruu-dtâawng-gaan-khaawm-phíu-dtôoe-khrûueng-mài
“The teachers want a new computer.”

Example 2:  
โรงพยาบาลต้องการจ้างนางพยาบาลเพิ่ม
roong-phá-yaa-baan-dtâawng-gaan-jâang-naang-phá-yaa-baan-phôoem
“The hospital wants to hire more nurses.”

Example 3:  
เธอต้องการอะไรเพิ่มมั๊ย
thooe-dtâawng-gaan-à-rai-phôoem-mái
“Do you want anything more?”

Example 4:  
น้ำตาลอยากไปเที่ยวหัวหิน
nám-dtaan-yàak-bpai-thîiao-hǔua-hǐn
“Namtan wants to go to Huahin.”

Example 5:  
แม่อยากลองทำเค้กสูตรใหม่
mâae-yàak-laawng-tham-khéek-sùut-mài
“Mom wants to try a new cake recipe.”

Cake Batter being Mixed

Mom wants to try a new cake recipe.

Example 6:  
มินท์อยากแต่งงานก่อนอายุ 30 ปี
mín-yàak-dtàaeng-ngaan-gàawn-aa-yú-sǎam-sìp
“Mint wants to get married before she is 30 years old.”

Example 7:  
ฉันอยากได้รองเท้าคู่ใหม่
chǎn-yàak-dâi-raawng-tháo-khûu-mài
“I want a new pair of shoes.”

Example 8:  
รพีไม่อยากได้งานเพิ่ม
rá-phii-mâi-yàak-dâi-ngaan-phôoem
“Rapee doesn’t want more jobs.”

Example 9:  
มีใครอยากได้ชาเพิ่มมั๊ย
mii-khrai-yàak-dâi-chaa-phôoem-mái
“Anyone want more tea?”

4. [Subject] has to [Verb] 

Another basic Thai sentence pattern you should know is “I have …”.  You can use this Thai sentence pattern to express what you have to do.

Sentence structure:  

Subject + ต้อง (dtâawng) + Verb

Explanation:  

This type of sentence in Thai is pretty easy and straightforward. You just put the subject, followed by ต้อง (dtâawng), which means “must” or “have to” in Thai, and then the verb.

Example 1:  
เธอต้องออกจากบ้านเดี๋ยวนี้ ไม่งั้นจะสาย
thooe-dtâawng-àawk-jàak-bâan-dǐiao-níi mâi-ngán-jà-sǎai
“You have to leave now or else you will be late.”

Example 2:  
ยายต้องกินยาก่อนนอนทุกวัน
yaai-dtâawng-gin-yaa-gàawn-naawn-thúuk-wan
“Grandma has to take medicine before bed every day.”

Example 3:  
วรรณาต้องไปเชียงรายพรุ่งนี้
wan-naa-dtâawng-bpai-chiiang-raai-phrûng-níi
“Wanna has to go to Chiangrai tomorrow.”

5. [Subject] Likes [Noun/Verb] 

Another common Thai language sentence structure is that for expressing likes and preferences. It’s one of the most basic Thai sentence patterns you can use to talk about your favorite things and activities.

Sentence structure:  

Subject + ชอบ (châawp) + Noun / Verb

Explanation:  

ชอบ (châawp) is “like” in Thai. To use this sentence pattern, you put the subject, followed by ชอบ (châawp), and then the noun or verb.

Example 1:  
แม่ชอบกินแก้วมังกร
mâae-châawp-gin-gâaeo-mang-gaawn
“Mom likes to eat dragon fruits.”

Example 2:  
นภาชอบสีชมพู
ná-phaa-châawp-sǐi-chom-phuu
“Napa likes pink.”

A Girl Wearing Lots of Pink

Napa likes pink.

Example 3:  
ตุ้มไม่ชอบดูหนังผี
dtûm-mâi-châawp-duu-nǎng-phǐi
“Tum doesn’t like scary movies.”

6. Please… 

The next basic Thai sentence structure we’ll show you is used to politely ask someone to do something. There are two Thai sentence patterns you need to know.

Sentence structure:  
กรุณา (gà-rú-naa) + Verb 
ช่วย (chûuai) + Verb 

Explanation:  

Thai people use กรุณา (gà-rú-naa) and ช่วย (chûuai) when they want to ask others to do something. กรุณา (gà-rú-naa) and ช่วย (chûuai) are pretty much the same, except กรุณา (gà-rú-naa) is used in formal situations while ช่วย (chûuai) is more often used in casual conversations.

Example 1:  
กรุณาถอดรองเท้าก่อนเข้าห้อง
gà-rú-naa-thàawt-raawng-tháo-gàawn-khâo-hâawng
“Please take off your shoes before entering the room.”

Example 2:  
กรุณาอย่าส่งเสียงดัง
gà-rú-naa-yàa-sòng-sǐiang-dang
“Please don’t make loud noises.”

Example 3:  
กรุณาให้ความร่วมมือกับเจ้าหน้าที่
gà-rú-naa-hâi-khwaam-rûuam-muue-gàp-jâo-nâa-thîi
“Please cooperate with our staff.”

Example 4:  
ช่วยฉันทำความสะอาดห้องหน่อย
chûuai-chǎn-tham-khaawm-sà-àat-hâawng-nàauy
“Please help me clean the room.”

Example 5:  
ช่วยเงียบหน่อย
chûuai-ngîiap-nàauy
“Please be quiet.”

A Woman at a Movie Theater Making the Quiet Gesture

Please be quiet.

Example 6:  
ช่วยเดินเร็ว ๆ หน่อย
chûuai-dooen-reo-reo-nòi
“Please walk faster.”

7. May I? / Can I?

This sentence pattern in Thai is used to ask for permission. However, this is considered an imperfect sentence because Thai people leave the word “may” or “can” out.

Sentence structure:  

ขอ (khǎaw) + Verb + ได้มั้ย (dâi-mái)

Explanation:  

This Thai sentence pattern is quite different from its  English counterpart. This is because there is no ฉัน (chǎn), which is “I” in Thai, in the sentence.    

You start the sentence with ขอ (khǎaw), which means “ask.” Next, you put the verb, followed by ได้มั้ย (dâi-mái), which is used to make a permission question in Thai.

Example 1:  
ขอเข้าไปได้มั้ย
khǎaw-khâo-bpai-dâi-mái
“May I come in?”

Example 2:  
ขอยืมหนังสือเล่มนั้นได้มั้ย
khǎaw-yuuem-nǎng-sǔue-lêm-nán-dâi-mái
“Can I borrow that book?”

A Woman Smiling with a Book on Top of Her Head

Can I borrow that book?

Example 3:  
ขอไปดูหนังกับเพื่อนวันเสาร์นี้ได้มั้ย
khǎaw-bpai-duu-nǎng-gàp-phûuen-wan-sǎo-níi-dâi-mái
“Can I go see the movie with my friend this Saturday?”

8. What is…? 

Another useful Thai sentence pattern you should learn is “What is…?” You can use this sentence pattern in Thai to ask for information about something.

Sentence structure:  

… + คือ (khuue) + อะไร (à-rai

Explanation:  

As mentioned earlier, คือ (khuue) is one of the words for the verb “to be” in Thai. Also note that อะไร (à-rai) is “what.”  

You may notice that Thai people use คือ (khuue), not เป็น (bpen), in this sentence structure. This is because you’re asking for information you don’t know.

Example 1:  
นี่คืออะไร
nîi-khuue-à-rai
“What is this?”

Example 2:  
อาหารที่เราสั่งครั้งที่แล้วคืออะไร
aa-hǎan-thîi-rao-sàng-khráng-thîi-láaeo-khuue-à-rai
“What is the food we ordered last time?”

Example 3:  
เครื่องดื่มที่คุณชอบคืออะไร
khrûueng-dùuem-thîi-khun-châawp-khuue-à-rai
“What is your favorite drink?”

9. When is…? 

Now that you’ve learned the “What is …?” sentence structure, it makes sense to learn the “When is…?” structure as well. With this structure, you can make Thai phrases for asking about the time.

Sentence structure:  

… + เมื่อไหร่ (mûuea-rài)

Explanation:  

เมื่อไหร่ (mûuea-rài) is “when” in Thai. You put the event that you want to know the time of, followed by เมื่อไหร่ (mûue-rài).

Example 1:  
ประชุมเมื่อไหร่
bprà-chum-mûuea-rài
“When is the meeting?”

Example 2:  
เธอจะเริ่มทำงานเมื่อไหร่
thooe-jà-rôoem-tham-ngan-mûuea-rài
“When will you start working?”

Example 3:  
ตาลจะมาถึงเมื่อไหร่
dtaan-jà-ma-thǔeng-mûuea-rài
“When will Tarn arrive?”

10. Where is…? 

You can now ask for more information and about the time. In this section, we’ll also teach you how to ask about location. This is one of those basic Thai phrases you’ll use all the time! 

Sentence structure:  
Place + อยู่ที่ไหน (yùu-thîi-nǎi)
Place + ไปทางไหน (bpai-thaang-nǎi)

Explanation:  

Both of the structures above are pretty similar to each other, and are used to ask about location. The first one is the Thai translation sentence pattern of “Where is …?”  The other is closer to: “How to go to …?”

Example 1:  
ห้องน้ำอยู่ที่ไหน
hâawng-nám-yùu-thîi-nǎi
Where is the toilet?

Signs for the Restroom

Where is the toilet?

Example 2:  
บ้านของเธออยู่ที่ไหน
bâan-khǎawng-thooe-yùu-thîi-nǎi
“Where is your house?”

Example 3:  
ภูเขาที่สูงที่สุดในไทยอยู่ที่ไหน
phuu-khǎo-thîi-sǔung-thîi-sùt-nai-thai-yùu-thîi-nǎi
“Where is the highest mountain in Thailand?”

Example 4:  
จุดชมวิวไปทางไหน
jùt-chom-wiu-bpai-thaang-nǎi
“How to go to the viewpoint?”

Example 5:  
สถานีตำรวจที่ใกล้ที่สุดไปทางไหน
sà-thǎa-nii-dtam-rùuat-thîi-glâi-thîi-sùt-bpai-thaang-nǎi
“How to go to the nearest police station?”

Example 6:  
ประชาสัมพันธ์ไปทางไหน
bprà-chaa-sǎm-phan-bpai-thaang-nǎi
“How to go to the information center?”

11. Conclusion

The lesson has finally come to an end, and you’ve already learned ten useful Thai sentence patterns for everyday use! We hope they’re not too hard for you, but remember that it may take a while to memorize all of them. Using a variety of Thai sentence patterns in daily conversations will help you get familiar with them; eventually, you’ll be able to use them with great fluency.  

Are there any specific topics you want to learn about in future articles? Leave us a comment to let us know! If you have no clue what you want to learn next, we have a list of fun lessons for you at ThaiPod101.com, so don’t forget to check it out.  

If you want to know more about sentence structure in Thai, our word order article is a great place to expand your knowledge. However, if that’s too serious a lesson for you, what about listening to a conversation about Thai tea and a date? Our lesson about ordering food at restaurants is also an interesting choice.

Happy learning!

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List of Thai Adverbs You Must Know

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Like in English, both adverbs and adjectives in Thai are quite important. Thai adjectives and adverbs are used to convey a more detailed message in speech and writing. They can also help you sound like a true native speaker. We’ve already published an article about Thai adjectives, so now it’s time to learn about adverbs in Thai.

In this lesson, you’ll learn about adverbs in Thai grammar, including proper adverb usage in Thai and a list of the most common Thai adverbs. Let’s begin our lesson.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Thai Table of Contents
  1. Basic Information About Thai Adverbs
  2. Thai Adverbs of Time
  3. Thai Adverbs of Frequency
  4. Thai Adverbs of Place
  5. Thai Adverbs of Manner
  6. Thai Adverbs of Degree
  7. Conclusion

1. Basic Information About Thai Adverbs

Top Verbs

Before we get ahead of ourselves, it’s important to know a little bit about Thai language adverbs. To start with the very basics, คำวิเศษณ์ (kham-ví-sèet) means “adverb” in Thai. However, คำวิเศษณ์ (kham-ví-sèet) is not exactly the same as adverbs in English. It’s just the Thai grammatical term that’s the most similar to adverbs in English.

คำวิเศษณ์ (kham-ví-sèet) refers to words that are used to modify nouns, pronouns, verbs, as well as adverbs. If compared to English, คำวิเศษณ์ (kham-ví-sèet) is like a combination of adverbs and adjectives in Thai. Still, learning both adverbs and adjectives may confuse you, so this lesson will focus solely on adverbs.

Now that you know the definition of an adverb in Thai, the next thing you should know is how to use adverbs in Thai sentences. There’s no clear structure of where you should put adverbs, meaning that the placement of adverbs in each group is different. But don’t worry, we’ll explain word order for each adverb, one by one, in the following sections.

One last note: If you’re looking for a way to identify adverbs in sentences, there’s some bad news. Unlike in English, there’s no clear way to distinguish adverbs from other words. So this lesson focuses mainly on vocabulary, as opposed to a set of rules for Thai adverbs.

In the following section, we’ll teach you Thai language adverbs that you should know, categorized into different groups for easy understanding.

2. Thai Adverbs of Time

1 – Today 

Thai adverb: วันนี้ (wan-níi)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example:  

พ่อเดินทางไปทำงานที่ชลบุรีวันนี้

phâaw-dooen-thaang-bpai-tham-ngaan-thîi-chon-bù-rii-wan-níi

“Dad goes to work at Chonburi today.”

2 – Tomorrow 

Thai adverbs: วันพรุ่งนี้ (wan-phrûng-níi); พรุ่งนี้ (phrûng-níi)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

พยากรณ์อากาศบอกว่าอากาศจะแจ่มใสในวันพรุ่งนี้

phá-yaa-gaawn-aa-gàat-bàawk-wâa-aa-gàat-jà-jàaem-sǎi-nai-wan-phrûng-níi

“The weather forecast states that it will be sunny tomorrow.”

Example 2:  

พรุ่งนี้ เธอจะไปไหนเหรอ

phrûng-níi thooe-jà-bpai-nhǎi-rhǒoe

“Where will you go tomorrow?”

Additional note: วันพรุ่งนี้ (wan-phrûng-níi) and พรุ่งนี้ (phrûng-níi) have the same meaning and can substitute one another perfectly. Actually, พรุ่งนี้ (phrûng-níi) is a shortened version of วันพรุ่งนี้ (wan-phrûng-níi), so วันพรุ่งนี้ (wan-phrûng-níi) is a little bit more formal.

3 – The day after tomorrow 

Thai adverb: วันมะรืน (wan-má-ruuen)

Placement in sentence:  It is often in the beginning or the end of sentences.

Example:  ผลสอบจะออกวันมะรืนนี้

  • phǒn-sàawp-jà-àawk-wan-má-ruuen-níi
  • The test result will be announced the day after tomorrow.

4 – Yesterday 

Thai adverb:  เมื่อวาน (mûuea-waan)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example:  

เมื่อวาน น้ำท่วมที่ขอนแก่นเพราะฝนตกหนัก

mûuea-waan nám-thûuam-thîi-khǎawn-gàaen-phráo-fǒn-dtòk-nàk-mâak

“There was a flood at Khongaen yesterday because of heavy rain.”

5 – Last ___ (day / week / month / year)

Thai adverb: …ที่แล้ว (…thîi-láaeo)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

How to use: You either put the name of the day, or put the word “week,” “month,” or “year,” before ที่แล้ว (thîi-láaeo).

Example:  

วันจันทร์ที่แล้ว ฉันไปเยี่ยมคุณยายที่ลพบุรี

wan-jan-thîi-láaeo chǎn-bpai-yîiam-khun-yaai-thîi-lóp-bù-rii

“I visited my grandmother at Lopburi last Monday.”

Additional note

6 – This ___ (day / week / month / year)

Thai adverb: …นี้ (…níi)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

How to use: You either put the name of the day, or the word “week,” “month,” or “year” before นี้ (níi).

Example:  

ฉันจะลดน้ำหนักให้ได้ 2 กิโลกรัมในเดือนนี้ 

chǎn-jà-lót-nám-nàk-hâi-dâi-sǎawng-gì-loo-nai-duuean-níi

“I will lose 2 kilograms within this month.”

7 – Next ___ (day / week / month / year)

Thai adverb: …หน้า (…nâa)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

How to use: You either put the name of the day, or the word “week,” “month,” or “year,” before หน้า (nâa).

Example:  

ปีหน้า แม่จะอายุ 57 ปีแล้ว

bpii-nâa mâae-jà-aa-yú-hâa-sìp-jèt-bpii-láaeo

“Next year, Mom will be 57 years old.”

8 – In the morning

Thai adverbs: ตอนเช้า (dtaawn-cháo); ช่วงเช้า (chûuang-cháo)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

ตอนเช้า ในสวนอากาศดีมาก

dtaawn-cháao nai-sǔuan-aa-gàat-dii-mâak

“The weather in the garden is very good in the morning.”

Example 2:  

พ่ออ่านหนังสือพิมพ์ช่วงเช้า

phâaw-àan-nǎng-sǔue-phim-chûuang-cháo

“Dad reads the newspaper in the morning.”

Additional note: ตอนเช้า (dtaawn-cháo) is slightly different from ช่วงเช้า (chûuang-cháo). ตอนเช้า (dtaawn-cháo) refers to a specific time in the morning, while ช่วงเช้า (chûuang-cháo) refers to the morning period.

9 – In late morning

Thai adverbs: ตอนสาย (dtaawn-sǎai); ช่วงสาย (chûuang-sǎai)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

เดี๋ยวเราค่อยออกไปข้างนอกตอนสาย ๆ

dǐiao-rao-khâauy-àawk-bpai-khâang-nâawk-dtaawn-sǎi-sǎi

“We should go out in the late morning.”

Example 2

ช่วงสาย ๆ หน้าบ้านรถติดมาก

chûuang-sǎi-sǎi nhâa-bâan-rót-dtìt-mâak

“The traffic in front of my house is very bad in the late morning.”

Additional note:  ตอนสาย (dtaawn-sǎai) is slightly different from ช่วงสาย (chûuang-sǎai). ตอนสาย (dtaawn-sǎai) refers to a specific time in the late morning, while ช่วงสาย (chûuang-sǎai) refers to the late morning period.

10 – At noon

Thai adverbs: ตอนเที่ยง (dtaawn-thîiang); ช่วงเที่ยง (chûuang-thîiang)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

ท้องฉันร้องตอนเที่ยง

tháawng-chǎn-ráawng-dtaawn-thîiang

“My stomach rumbles at noon.”

Example 2:  

ช่วงเที่ยง โรงอาหารคนแน่นมาก

chûuang-thîiang roong-aa-hǎan-khon-nâaen-mâak

“The canteen is very crowded at noon.”

Additional note: ตอนเที่ยง (dtaawn-thîiang) is slightly different from ช่วงเที่ยง (chûuang-thîiang). ตอนเที่ยง (dtaawn-thîiang) refers to a specific time from noon to one, while ช่วงเที่ยง (chûuang-thîiang) refers to the entire period of time between noon and one.

11 – In the afternoon 

Thai adverbs: ตอนบ่าย (dtaawn-bàai); ช่วงบ่าย (chûuang-bàai)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

พอกินข้าวเที่ยงแล้ว ฉันก็อยากจะนอนพักตอนบ่าย

phaaw-gin-khâo-thîiang-láaeo chǎn-gâaw-yàak-naawn-phák-dtaawn-bàai

“After having lunch, I want to take a nap in the afternoon.”

Example 2:  

ช่วงบ่าย นลินมีประชุม 

chûuang-bàai-ná-lin-mii-bprà-chum

“Nalin has a meeting in the afternoon.”

Additional note: ตอนบ่าย (dtaawn-bàai) is slightly different from ช่วงบ่าย (chûuang-bàai). ตอนบ่าย (dtaawn-bàai) refers to a specific time in the afternoon, while ช่วงบ่าย (chûuang-bàai) refers to the afternoon period.

12 – In the evening

Thai adverbs: ตอนเย็น (dtaawn-yen); ช่วงเย็น (chûuang-yen)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

ตอนเย็นนี้ กานดามีนัดกับแฟน

dtaawn-yen-níi gaan-daa-mii-nát-gàp-faaen

“Ganda has a date with her boyfriend this evening.”

Example 2:  

ช่วงเย็น ฉันไปวิ่งกับเพื่อนบ่อย ๆ

chûuang-yen chǎn-bpai-wîng-gàp-phûuean-bàauy-bàauy

“I often go jogging with my friend in the evening.”

Additional note: ตอนเย็น (dtaawn-yen) is slightly different from ช่วงเย็น (chûuang-yen). ตอนเย็น (dtaawn-yen) refers to a specific time in the evening, while ช่วงเย็น (chûuang-yen) refers to the evening period.

13 – During the day 

Thai adverb: ตอนกลางวัน (dtaawn-glaang-wan)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example:  

ตอนกลางวัน ไม่มีใครอยากออกไปข้างนอกเลยเพราะอากาศร้อนมาก ๆ

dtaawn-glaang-wan mâi-mii-khrai-yàak-àawk-bpai-khâang-nâawk-looei-phráo-aa-gàat-ráawn-mâak

“No one wants to go out during the day because the weather is very hot.”

14 – At night 

Thai adverb: ตอนกลางคืน (dtaawn-glaang-khuuen)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example:  

อย่าออกไปไหนคนเดียวตอนกลางคืน มันอันตราย

yàa-àawk-bpai-nhǎi-dtaawn-glaang-khuuen-khon-diiao man-an-dtà-raai

“Don’t go out alone at night. It is dangerous.”

15 – Soon 

Thai adverb: เร็ว ๆ นี้ (reo-reo-níi)

Placement in sentence: It comes at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

ฉันจะไปเยี่ยมเธอเร็ว ๆ นี้

chǎn-ja-bpai-yîiam-thooe-reo-reo-níi

“I will visit you soon.”

16 – At first 

Thai adverb: ตอนแรก (dtaawn-râaek)

Placement in sentence: It comes at the beginning of a sentence.

Example:  

ตอนแรก ฉันไม่ชอบกินมะม่วงสุกเลย

dtaawn-râaek chǎn-mâi-châawp-gin-má-mûuang-sùk-looei

“I didn’t like to eat ripe mango at first.”

17 – Last 

Thai adverb: สุดท้าย (sùt-tháai)

Placement in sentence: It comes at the beginning of a sentence.

Example:  

สุดท้าย เธอก็ทำสำเร็จ

sùt-tháai thooe-gâaw-tham-sǎm-rèt

“You finally did it at last.”

18 – Before / Prior

Thai adverb: ก่อน… (gàawn…)

Placement in sentence: A phrase with ก่อน… (gàawn…) can be at either the beginning or the end of a sentence.

How to use: Like in English, you put the event that happens later after ก่อน (gàawn). 

Example:  

ก่อนกินข้าวเที่ยง อย่าลืมกินยา

gàawn-gin-khâao-thîiang yàa-luuem-gin-yaa

“Don’t forget to take the pill before lunch.”

19 – After

Thai adverb: หลัง… (lǎng…)

Placement in sentence: A phrase with หลัง… (lǎng…) can be at either the beginning or the end of a sentence.

How to use: Like in English, you put the event that happens first after หลัง (lǎng).

Example:  

โทรหาเจ้านายหลังประชุมเสร็จด้วย

thoo-hǎa-jâo-naai-lǎng-bprà-chum-sèt-dûuai

“Call the boss after the meeting is over.”

20 – Now 

Thai adverb: ตอนนี้ (dtaawn-nii)

Placement in sentence: It’s often at the beginning or the end of a sentence.

Example:  

ตอนนี้เธออายุเท่าไหร่

dtaawn-níi-thooe-aa-yú-thâo-rài

“How old are you now?”

21 – Right now 

Thai adverb: เดี๋ยวนี้ (dǐiao-níi)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

ไปหยิบมาเดี๋ยวนี้

bpai-yìp-maa-dǐiao-níi

“Go get it right now.”

22 – Currently

Thai adverb: ปัจจุบันนี้ (bpàt-jù-ban-níi)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the beginning of a sentence.

Example:  

ปัจจุบันนี้ ประเทศไทยมีปัญหาเรื่องมลพิษทางอากาศ

bpàt-jù-ban-níi bprà-thêt-thai-mii-bpan-hǎa-rûueang-mon-lá-phít-thang-aa-gàat

“Currently, Thailand has an air pollution problem.”

23 – Recently 

Thai adverb: ช่วงนี้ (chûuang-níi)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the beginning of a sentence.

Example:  

ช่วงนี้ เศรษฐกิจไม่ดีเลย

chûuang-níi sèt-thà-gìt-mâi-dii-looei

“Recently, the economy is bad.”

24 – Previously 

Thai adverb: ก่อนหน้านี้ (gàawn-nâa-níi)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the beginning of a sentence.

Example:  

ก่อนหน้านี้ ธุรกิจที่บ้านดีมาก

gàawn-nâa-níi thú-rá-gìt-thîi-bâan-dii-mâak

“Previously, our family business was doing very well.”

3. Thai Adverbs of Frequency 

More Essential Verbs

1 – Never 

Thai adverb: ไม่เคย (mâi-khooei)

Placement in sentence: It’s put between the subject and the verb.

Example:  

ฉันไม่เคยสูบบุหรี่

chǎn-mâi-khooei-sùup-bù-rìi

“I have never smoked before.”

Woman Breaking a Cigarette

I have never smoked before.

2 – Rarely / Seldomly 

Thai adverbs: แทบจะไม่ (thâaep-jà-mâi); นาน ๆ ครั้ง (naan-naan-khráng); ไม่ค่อยได้ (mâi-khâauy-dâi)

Placement in sentence: แทบจะไม่เคย (thâaep-jà-mâi) and ไม่ค่อยได้ (mâi-khâauy-dâi) are put between the subject and the verb. นาน ๆ ครั้ง (naan-naan-khráng) is put either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

สมิทธ์ทำงานหนักมาก เขาแทบจะไม่ได้ออกกำลังกายเลย

sà-mít-tham-ngaan-nàk-mâak khǎo-thâaep-jà-mâi-dâi-àawk-gam-lang-gaai-looei

“Smith works really hard. He rarely exercises.”

Example 2:  

นาน ๆ ครั้ง รัตนาจะทำความสะอาดบ้าน

naan-naan-khráng rát-thà-naa-jà-tham-khwaam-sà-àat-bâan

“Rattana seldomly cleans the house.”

Example 3:  

อนันต์สุขภาพไม่ดี เขาไม่ค่อยได้ออกไปไหน

a-nan-sùk-khà-phâap-mâi-dii khǎo-mâi-khâauy-dâi-àawk-bpai-nhǎi

“Anan is not very healthy. He rarely goes out.”

Additional note: แทบจะไม่ (thâaep-jà-mâi), นาน ๆ ครั้ง (naan-naan-khráng), and ไม่ค่อยได้ (mâi-khâauy-dâi) are pretty much the same and can substitute one another.

3 – Sometimes

Thai adverb: บางครั้ง (baang-khráng)

Placement in sentence: It’s put either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

ฉ้นดื่มไวน์เป็นบางครั้ง

chǎn-dùuem-waai-bpen-baang-khráng

“I sometimes drink wine.”

4 – Often 

Thai adverbs: บ่อย ๆ (bàauybàauy); บ่อยครั้ง (bàauy-khráng)

Placement in sentence: บ่อย ๆ (bàauybàauy) is put at the end of a sentence, while บ่อยครั้ง (bàauy-khráng) can be put either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

กนกวรรณมาซื้อของที่ร้านนี้บ่อย ๆ 

gà-nòk-wan-maa-súue-khǎawng-thîi-ráan-níi-bàauybàauy

“Kanokwan often shops from this store.”

Example 2:  

มัดหมี่คิดถึงพ่อและแม่บ่อยครั้ง

mát-mìi-khít-thǔeng-phâaw-láe-mâae-bàauy-khráng

“Matmee often thinks of her dad and her mom.”

Additional note: Despite having the same meaning, บ่อย ๆ (bàauybàauy) and บ่อยครั้ง (bàauy-khráng) are slightly different. บ่อย ๆ (bàauybàauy) can be used in both spoken and written language, while บ่อยครั้ง (bàauy-khráng) is often used in written language but rarely in spoken language.

5 – Usually / Normally

Thai adverbs: ตามปกติ (dtaam-bpòk-gà-thì); โดยปกติ (dooi-bpòk-gà-thì)

Placement in sentence: ตามปกติ (dtaam-bpòk-gà-thì) can be put either at the beginning or at the end of a  sentence, while โดยปกติ (dooi-bpòk-gà-thì) is put at the beginning.

Example 1:  

ตามปกติแล้ว ฉันมักจะตื่นนอนตอน 7 โมง

dtaam-bpòk-gà-thì-láaeo chǎn-mák-jà-dtùuen-naawn-dtaawn-jèt-moong

“Normally, I wake up at 7 a.m.”

Example 2:  

โดยปกติ แม่ไปตลาดอาทิตย์ละ 1 ครั้ง

dooi-bpòk-gà-thì mâae-bpai-dtà-làat-aa-thít-lá-nùeng-khráng

“Mom usually goes to the market once a week.”

Additional note: The meanings of ตามปกติ (dtaam-bpòk-gà-thì) and โดยปกติ (dooi-bpòk-gà-thì) are pretty much the same. However, โดยปกติ (dooi-bpòk-gà-thì) sounds a little more formal than ตามปกติ (dtaam-bpòk-gà-thì).

6 – Always 

Thai adverb: เสมอ (sà-mǒoe)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

ฉ้นคิดถึงเธอเสมอ

chǎn-khít-thǔeng-thooe-sà-mǒoe

“I always think of you.”

Additional note: Apart from meaning “always,” เสมอ (sà-mǒoe) can also mean “draw” or “tie.” 

7 – All the time

Thai adverb: ตลอดเวลา (dtà-làawt-wee-laa)

Placement in sentence: It’s put either at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

ตอนพัก แก้วคุยโทรศัพท์ตลอดเวลา

dtaawn-phák gâao-khui-thoo-rá-sàp-dtà-làawt-wee-laa

“Kaew is on the phone during the break all the time.”

8 – Hourly 

Thai adverb: ทุกชั่วโมง (thúk-chûua-moong)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

กฤษฎาเช็คอีเมลทุกชั่วโมง

grìt-sà-daa-chék-ii-meeo-thúk-chûua-moong

“Kritsada checks his email hourly.”

9 – Daily 

Thai adverb: ทุกวัน (thúk-wan)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

มินท์ออกกำลังกายทุกวัน

mín-àawk-gam-lang-gaai-thúk-wan

“Mint exercises daily.”

A Woman Doing a Yoga Pose

Mint exercises daily.

10 – Weekly 

Thai adverbs: ทุกสัปดาห์ (thúk-sàp-daa); ทุกอาทิตย์ (thúk-aa-thít)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

เขาอ่านหนังสือ 1 เล่มทุกสัปดาห์

khǎo-àan-nǎng-sǔue-nùeng-lêm-thúk-sàp-daa

“He reads a book weekly.”

Example 2:  

สิงห์เตะบอลทุกอาทิตย์

sǐng-dtè-baawn-thúk-aa-thít

“Singh plays football weekly.”

Additional note: ทุกสัปดาห์ (thúk-sàp-daa) and ทุกอาทิตย์ (thúk-aa-thít) have the same meaning and can substitute one another. However, since สัปดาห์ (sàp-daa) is more formal than อาทิตย์ (aa-thít), you can also guess that ทุกสัปดาห์ (thúk-sàp-daa) is more formal than ทุกอาทิตย์ (thúk-aa-thít) as well.

11 – Monthly 

Thai adverb: ทุกเดือน (thúk-duuean)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

แม่ไปเยี่ยมยายทุกเดือน

mâae-bpai-yîiam-yaai-thúk-duuean

“Mom visits Grandma monthly.”

12 – Quarterly 

Thai adverbs: ทุกไตรมาส (thúk-dtrai-mâat); ทุก 3 เดือน (thúk-sǎam-duuean)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the end of a sentence.

Example 1:  

ธำรงต้องเขียนรายงานทางเศรษฐกิจทุกไตรมาส

tham-rong-dtâawng-khǐian-raai-ngaan-thaang-sèt-thà-gìt-thúk-dtrai-mâat

“Thamrong has to write an economic report quarterly.”

Example 2:  

แม่ทำความสะอาดบ้านครั้งใหญ่ทุก 3 เดือน

mâae-tham-khwǎam-sà-àat-bâan-khráng-yài-thúk-sǎam-duuean

“Mom deeply cleans the house quarterly.”

Additional note: ทุกไตรมาส (thúk-dtrai-mâat) and ทุก 3 เดือน (thúk-sǎam-duuean) have the same meaning and can substitute one another. However, ทุกไตรมาส (thúk-dtrai-mâat) is more formal than ทุก 3 เดือน (thúk-sǎam-duuean).  ทุกไตรมาส (thúk-dtrai-mâat) is often used in news or formal reports.

13 – Annually

Thai adverb: ทุกปี (thúk-bpii)

Placement in sentence: It’s put at the end of a sentence.

Example:  

ตั้มตรวจสุขภาพทุกปี

dtûm-dtrùuat-sùk-khà-phâap-thúk-bpii

“Tum has his health check-up every year.”

4. Thai Adverbs of Place 

1 – Here

Thai adverbs: ที่นี่ (thîi-nîi); ตรงนี้ (dtrong-níi)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put at the end of a sentence, or after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be”  in Thai.

Example 1:  

ฉันจะรอเธออยู่ตรงนี้

chǎn-jà-raaw-thooe-yùu-dtrong-níi

“I will wait for you here.”

Example 2:  

เธอมาทำอะไรที่นี่

thooe-maa-tham-à-rai-thîi-nîi

“What are you doing here?”

Additional note: ที่นี่ (thîi-nîi) and ตรงนี้ (dtrong-níi) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another.  However, ตรงนี้ (dtrong-níi) refers to a small area around the speaker, while ที่นี่ (thîi-nîi) refers to a wider area around the speaker.

2 – There 

Thai adverbs: ที่นั่น (thîi-nân); ตรงนั้น (dtrong-nán)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put at the end of a sentence, or after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example 1:  

อีก 5 นาทีน้ำจะไปถึงที่นั่น

ìik-hâa-naa-thii-nám-jà-bpai-thǔeng-thîi-nân

“Nam will be there in 5 minutes.”

Example 2:  

กระเป๋าของเธออยู่ตรงนั้น

grà-bpǎo-khǎawng-thooe-yùu-dtrong-nán

“Your bag is there.”

Additional note: ที่นั่น (thîi-nân) and ตรงนั้น (dtrong-nán) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another. However, ที่นั่น (thîi-nân) refers to a small area around the person you’re talking to, while ที่นี่ (thîi-nîi) refers to a wider area around the person you’re talking to.

3 – Over there

Thai adverbs: ที่นู่น (thîi-nûun); ตรงนู้น (dtrong-núun)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put at the end of a sentence, or after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example 1:  

ตอนไปเที่ยวกระบี่ ฉันชอบอากาศที่นู่น

dtaawn-bpai-thîio-grà-bìi chǎn-châawp-aa-gàat-thîi-nûun

“When I travel to Krabi, I like the weather over there.”

Example 2

อย่าไปตรงนู้น คนเยอะมากเกินไป

yàa-bpai-dtrong-núun khon-yóe-mâak-gooen-bpai

“Don’t go over there. It is too crowded.”

Additional note: ที่นู่น (thîi-nûun) and ตรงนู้น (dtrong-núun) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another. However, ที่นู่น (thîi-nûun) refers to a small area of the place you’re talking about, while ที่นี่ (thîi-nîi) refers to a wider area of the place you’re talking about.

4 – Everywhere 

Thai adverb: ทุกที่ (thúk-thîi)

Placement in sentence: It has no certain placement in a sentence.

Example:  

คุณไม่สามารถเดินทางไปทุกที่ได้ด้วยการเดิน

khun-mâi-sǎa-mâat-dooen-thaang-bpai-thúk-thîi-dâi-dûuai-gaan-dooen

“You can’t travel everywhere by walking.”

5 – Inside 

Thai adverbs: ข้างใน (khâang-nai); ด้านใน (dâan-nai)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example 1:  

นักเรียน 5 คนอยู่ข้างในห้องสมุด

nák-riian-hâa-khon-yùu-khâang-nai-hâawng-sà-mùt

“There are 5 students inside the library.”

Example 2:  

เชิญรอด้านในเลยค่ะ

chooen-raaw-dâan-nai-looei-khà

“Please wait inside.”

Additional note: ข้างใน (khâang-nai) and ด้านใน (dâan-nai) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another.  

6 – Outside 

Thai adverbs: ข้างนอก (khâang-nâawk); ด้านนอก (dâan-nâawk)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example 1:  

ใครเดินอยู่ข้างนอกบ้าน

khrai-dooen-yùu-khâang-nâawk-bâan

“Who is walking outside the house?”

Example 2:  

ฉันจะรอเธออยู่ด้านนอก

chǎn-jà-raaw-thooe-yùu-dâan-nâawk

“I will wait for you outside.”

Additional note: ข้างนอก (khâang-nâawk) and ด้านนอก (dâan-nâawk) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another.  

7 – Up / Upstairs

Thai adverb: ข้างบน (khâang-bon)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example:  

ห้องทำงานอยู่ข้างบน

hâawng-tham-ngaan-yùu-khâang-bon

“The office is upstairs.”

8 – Down / Downstairs

Thai adverb: ข้างล่าง (khâang-laang)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example:  

ฉันควรขึ้นไปอยู่ข้างบนหรือลงไปอยู่ข้างล่าง

chǎn-khuuan-khûen-bpai-yùu-khâang-bon-rǔue-long-bpai-yùu-khâang-lâang

“Should I go up or go down?”

9 – Left 

Thai adverbs: ข้างซ้าย (khâang-sáai); ด้านซ้าย (dâan-sáai)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example 1:  

โรงพยาบาลอยู่ด้านซ้ายของเธอ

roong-phá-yaa-baan-yùu-dâan-sáai-khǎawng-thooe

“The hospital is on your left.”

Example 2:  

ช่วยทำความสะอาดโต๊ะที่อยู่ด้านซ้ายของเธอที

chûuay-tham-khwaam-sà-àat-dtó-thîi-yùu-dâan-sáai-khǎawng-thooe-thii

“Please clean the table on your left.”

Additional note: ข้างซ้าย (khâang-sáai) and ด้านซ้าย (dâan-sáai) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another.  

10 – Right 

Thai adverbs: ข้างขวา (khâang-khwǎa); ด้านขวา (dâan-khwǎa)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example 1:  

เดินไปเรื่อย ๆ จะเจอห้องน้ำอยู่ข้างขวา

dooen-bpai-rûueai-rûueai-ja-jooe-hâawng-nám-yùu-khâang-khwǎa

“Keep walking and you will find the toilet on your right.”

Example 2:  

หยิบขวดที่อยู่ด้านขวาให้หน่อย

yhìp-khùuat-thîi-yùu-dâan-khwǎa-hâi-nhòi

“Bring me the bottle on the right.”

Additional note: ข้างขวา (khâang-khwǎa) and ด้านขวา (dâan-khwǎa) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another.  

11 – Behind 

Thai adverbs: ข้างหลัง (khâang-lǎng); ด้านหลัง (dâan-lǎng)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example 1:  

ใครนั่งอยู่ด้านหลังปริม

khrai-nâng-yùu-dâan-lǎng-bprim

“Who is sitting behind Prim?”

Example 2:  

ฉันยืนอยู่ข้างหลังเธอ อย่าถอยมานะ

chǎn-yuuen-yùu-khâang-lǎng-thooe yàa-thǎauy-maa-ná

“I’m standing right behind you. Don’t step back.”

Additional note: ข้างหลัง (khâang-lǎng) and ด้านหลัง (dâan-lǎng) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another.  

12 – In front 

Thai adverbs: ข้างหน้า (khâang-lǎng); ด้านหน้า (dâan-lǎng)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example 1:  

กล่องที่วางอยู่ข้างหน้าห้องเป็นของใคร

glàawng-thîi-waang-yùu-khâang-nâa-hâawng-bpen-khǎawng-khrai

“Who is the owner of the box in front of the room?”

Example 2:  

ต้นไม้ที่อยู่ด้านหน้าพนิตชื่ออะไร

dtôn-mái-thîi-yùu-dâan-nâa-phá-nít-chûue-à-rai

“What is the name of the tree in front of Panit?”

Additional note: ข้างหน้า (khâang-lǎng) and ด้านหน้า (dâan-lǎng) have very similar meanings and can substitute one another.  

13 – Abroad

Thai adverb: ต่างประเทศ (dtàang-bprà-thêet)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after อยู่ (yùu), which is the verb “to be” in Thai.

Example:  

ตอนนี้มานิตเรียนอยู่ต่างประเทศ 

dtaawn-níi-maa-nít-riian-yùu-dtàang-bprà-thêet

“Manit is studying abroad now.”

Additional note: Literally, ต่างประเทศ (dtàang-bprà-thêet) means “different country” in Thai. ต่าง (dtàang) means “different” and ประเทศ (bprà-thêet) means “country.”

5. Thai Adverbs of Manner 

1 – Slowly 

Thai adverb: ช้า (cháa)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

เขาเดินช้า เพราะ เจ็บขา 

khǎo-dooen-cháa phráw-jèb-khǎa

“He walks slowly because his leg hurts.”

2 – Quickly 

Thai adverb: เร็ว (reo)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

ลลิตาหั่นผักได้เร็วมาก

lá-lí-dtaa-hàn-phàk-dâi-reo-mâak

“Lalita can chop vegetables very quickly.”

Woman Chopping a Red Onion

Lalita can chop vegetables very quickly.

3 – Intentionally

Thai adverb: ตั้งใจ (dtâng-jai)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put before the verb.

Example:  

แม่ตั้งใจทำน้ำแกงให้ฉัน

mâae-dtâng-jai-tham-nám-gaaeng-hâi-chǎn

“Mom makes this soup for me intentionally.”

4 – Neatly 

Thai adverb: เรียบร้อย (rîiap-ráauy)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

ช่วยจัดของให้เรียบร้อยด้วยนะ

chûuai-jàt-khǎawng-hâi-rîiap-ráauy-dûuai-ná

“Please arrange things neatly.”

5 – Perfunctorily 

Thai adverbs: ทำ…ให้เสร็จ ๆ ไป (tham-…-hâi-sèt-sèt-bpai); ทำ…ลวก ๆ (tham-…-lûuak-lûuak)

Placement in sentence: The verb is put in the blank.

Example 1:  

เขาทำงานให้มันเสร็จ ๆ ไป ไม่ได้ใส่ใจมาก

khǎo-tham-ngaan-hâi-man-sèt-sèt-bpai mâi-dâi-sài-jai-mâak

“He did the work perfunctorily, didn’t pay much attention.”

Example 2:  

อย่าทำลวก ๆ นะ 

yàa-tham-lûuak-lûuak-ná

“Don’t do this perfunctorily.”

Additional note: ทำให้เสร็จ ๆ ไป (tham-hâi-sèt-sèt-bpai) sounds more formal than ทำลวก ๆ (tham-lûuak-lûuak).  ทำลวก ๆ (tham-lûuak-lûuak) is often used in spoken language.

6 – Diligently 

Thai adverb: อย่างขยันขันแข็ง (yàang-khà-yǎn-khǎn-khǎaeng)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

จรณได้เป็นพนักงานดีเด่นประจำปีเพราะทำงานอย่างขยันขันแข็ง

jà-ron-dâi-bpen-phá-nák-ngaan-dii-dèn-bprà-jam-bpii-phráw-tham-ngaan-yàang-khà-yǎn-khǎn-khǎaeng

“Jaron is the employee of the year because he works diligently.”

7 – Eagerly

Thai adverb: อย่างกระตือรือร้น (yàang-grà-thuue-ruue-rón)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

เขาเตรียมงานแต่งงานอย่างกระตือรือร้น

khǎo-dtriiam-ngaan-dtàaeng-ngaan-yàang-grà-thuue-ruue-rón

“He prepares his wedding eagerly.”

8 – Carefully 

Thai adverb: อย่างระมัดระวัง (yàang-rá-mát-rá-wang)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

บรวิทย์ขับรถอย่างระมัดระวัง เพราะฝนตก

baaw-rá-wít-khàp-rót-yàang-rá-mát-rá-wang-phráw-fǒn-dtòk

“Borawit drives carefully because of the rain.”

9 – Reluctantly 

Thai adverb: อย่างไม่เต็มใจ (yàang-mâi-dtem-jai)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

ข้าวหอมทำตามที่เพื่อนบอกอย่างไม่เต็มใจ

khâao-hǎawm-tham-dtaam-thîi-phûuean-bàawk-yàang-mâi-dtem-jai

“Kaohom reluctantly does as her friend told her.”

10 – Efficiently 

Thai adverb: อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ (yàang-mii-bprà-sìt-thí-phâap)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

เครื่องจักรตัวใหม่ราคาแพงแต่ทำงานได้อย่างมีประสิทธิภาพ

khrûueng-jàk-dtuua-mài-raa-khaa-phaaeng-dtàae-tham-ngaan-dâi-yàang-mii-bprà-sìt-thí-phâap

“The new machine is expensive but functions efficiently.”

11 – Sarcastically

Thai adverb: อย่างประชดประชัน (yàang-bprà-chót-bprà-chan)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

อย่าพูดจาอย่างประชดประชันกับฉันนะ

yàa-phûut-ja-yàang-bprà-chót-bprà-chan-gàp-chǎn-ná

“Don’t talk sarcastically with me.”

12 – Continuously

Thai adverb: อย่างต่อเนื่อง (yàang-dtàaw-nûueang)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

งามจิตออกกำลังกายอย่างต่อเนื่องมาเป็นเวลา 4 เดือนแล้ว

ngaam-jìt-àawk-gam-lang-gaai-yàang-dtàaw-nûueang-maa-bpen-wee-laa-sìi-duuean-láaeo

“Ngamjit has been exercising continuously for 4 months now.”

13 – Quietly

Thai adverb: เงียบ ๆ (ngîiap-ngîiap)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

ธัญญาชอบอ่านหนังสือเงียบ ๆ 

than-yaa-châawp-àan-nǎng-sǔue-ngîiap-ngîiap

“Thanya likes to read the book quietly.”

Woman Reading a Book at Night

Thanya likes to read the book quietly.

14 – Loudly 

Thai adverb: เสียงดัง (sǐiang-dang)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

ปู่หัวเราะเสียงดัง

bpùu-hǔua-ráw-sǐiang-dang

“Grandpa laughs loudly.”

15 – Softly

Thai adverb: เบา ๆ (bao-bao)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

น้องยังเป็นเด็กทารกอยู่ จับน้องเบา ๆ นะ

náawng-yang-bpen-dèk-thaa-rók-yùu jàp-náawng-bao-bao-ná

“He is still a baby. Touch him softly.”

16 – Happily 

Thai adverb: อย่างมีความสุข (yàang-mii-khwǎam-sùk)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

ศรันย์ร้องเพลงอย่างมีความสุข

sà-ran-ráawng-pleeng-yàang-mii-khwǎam-sùk

“Saran sings the song happily.”

17 – Sadly 

Thai adverb: อย่างเศร้า ๆ (yàang-sâo-sâo)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

เขามองไปที่เธออย่างเศร้า ๆ

khaǒ-maawng-bpai-thîi-thooe-yàang-sâo-sâo

“He looks at her sadly.”

18 – Enjoyably 

Thai adverb: อย่างเพลิดเพลิน (yàang-phlôoet-phlooen)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

ปริญดูหนังเรื่องใหม่อย่างเพลิดเพลิน

bprà-rin-duu-nǎng-rûuang-mài-yàang-phlôoet-phlooen

“Prin watches the new movie enjoyably.”

A Couple Watching a Movie at a Theater

19 – Easily / Simply

Thai adverb: อย่างง่ายดาย (yàang-ngâai-daai)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

พิรุณแก้ปัญหานั้นได้อย่างง่ายดาย

Phí-run-gâae-bpan-hǎa-nán-dâi-yàang-ngâai-daai

“Pirun solved that problem easily.”

20 – Badly 

Thai adverb: ไม่ดี (mâi-dii)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

รายงานของภวัคเขียนมาไม่ดีเลย

raai-ngaan-khǎawng-phá-wák-khǐian-maa-mâi-dii-looei

“Pawak’s report is written badly.”

21 – Well 

Thai adverb: อย่างดี (yàang-dii)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

หนังสือเล่มนี้ถูกเขียนมาอย่างดี

nǎng-sǔue-lêm-níi-thùuk-khǐian-maa-yàang-dii

“This book is written well.”

22 – Angrily 

Thai adverb: อย่างโกรธเคือง (yàang-gròot-khuueng)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after the verb.

Example:  

แม่มองน้องอย่างโกรธเคือง

mâae-maawng-náawng-yàang-gròot-khuueng

“Mom looked at my younger brother angrily.”

6. Thai Adverbs of Degree 

1 – Very / So 

Thai adverbs: มาก (mâak); โคตร (kôot)

Placement in sentence: มาก (mâak) is put after adjectives and adverbs, while โคตร (kôot) is put before adjectives and adverbs.

Example 1:  

เขาวิ่งเร็วมาก

khǎo-wîng-reo-mâak

“He can run very fast.”

Example 2:  

เธอทำอาหารโคตรเก่ง

thooe-tham-aa-hǎan-khôot-gèng

“She cooks very well.”

Additional note: มาก (mâak) and โคตร (khôot) have the same meaning and can substitute one another. However, โคตร (khôot) is viewed as a rude word, so don’t use it in formal conversations.

Woman Taking Something Out of the Oven

She cooks very well.

2 – Rather / Fairly / Quite / Pretty 

Thai adverbs: ค่อนข้าง (khâawn-khâang); พอสมควร (phaaw-sǒm-khuuan)

Placement in sentence: ค่อนข้าง (khâawn-khâang) is put before adjectives and adverbs, while พอสมควร (phaaw-sǒm-kuuan) is put after adjectives and adverbs.

Example 1:  

ตฤณทำงานนี้ได้ค่อนข้างดี

Trin-tham-ngaan-níi-dâi-khâawn-khâang-dii

“Trin did this work pretty well.”

Example 2:  

วรินทร์พูดภาษาอังกฤษได้ดีพอสมควร

Wá-rin-phûut-phaa-sǎa-ang-grìt dâi-dii-phaaw-sǒm-khuuan

“Warin can speak English fairly well.”

Additional note: ค่อนข้าง (khâawn-khâang) and พอสมควร (phaaw-sǒm-khuuan) have the same meaning and can substitute one another. However, พอสมควร (phaaw-sǒm-khuuan) is slightly more formal than ค่อนข้าง (khâawn-khâang).

3 – Too 

Thai adverb: เกินไป (gooen-bpai)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put after adjectives and adverbs.

Example:  

สินธรทำงานหนักเกินไป

sǐn-thaawn-tham-ngaan-nàk-gooen-bpai

“Sintorn works too hard.”

4 – Extremely / Terribly 

Thai adverbs: มาก ๆ (mâak-mâak); โคตร ๆ (khôot-khôot); สุด ๆ (sùt-sùt)

Placement in sentence: มาก ๆ (mâak-mâak), โคตร ๆ (khôot-khôot), and สุด ๆ (sùt-sùt) are all put after adjectives and adverbs.

Example 1:  

เธอทำได้ดีมาก ๆ 

thooe-tham-dâi-dii-mâk-mâk

“You did this extremely well.”

Example 2:  

รถคันนี้วิ่งได้เร็วโคตร ๆ 

Rót-khan-níi-wîng-dâi-reo-khôot-khôot

“This car can go extremely fast.”

Example 3:  

แอนร้องเพลงได้เก่งสุด ๆ

aan-ráawng-pleeng-dâi-gèng-sùt-sùt

“Aan can sing terribly well.”

Additional note: มาก ๆ (mâak-mâak), โคตร ๆ (khôot-khôot), and สุด ๆ (sùt-sùt) have the same meaning and can substitute one another. However, โคตร ๆ (khôot-khôot) is viewed as a rude word which can’t be used in formal conversations, and สุด ๆ (sùt-sùt) is a slang word used among adolescents.

5 – Not very 

Thai adverb: ไม่ค่อย (mâi-kâauy)

Placement in sentence: It’s often put before adjectives and adverbs.

Example

ณภัทรวิ่งไม่ค่อยเร็วเพราะตัวอ้วน

ná-pát-wîng-mâi-khâauy-reo-phráw-dtuua-ûuan

“Napat can’t run very fast because he is fat.”

7. Conclusion

How do you feel about adverbs in Thai after reading this article? Can you remember them all? We know that it takes a lot of work to finish this lesson. We suggest you use these Thai adverbs a lot as practice so you can remember them faster.

Since you’ve learned about adverbs in Thai now, you may want to study Thai adjectives as well. Don’t forget to check out other lessons on ThaiPod101.com as well, such as Huahin, the sea near Bangkok and Top 25 Thai Nouns

Happy Thai learning!

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Thai Keyboard: How to Install and Type in Thai

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You asked, so we provided—easy-to-follow instructions on how to set up your electronic devices to write in Thai! We’ll also give you a few excellent tips on how to use this keyboard, as well as some online and app alternatives if you prefer not to set up a Thai keyboard.

Log in to Download Your Free Thai Alphabet Worksheet Table of Contents
  1. Why it’s Important to Learn to Type in Thai
  2. Setting up Your Computer and Mobile Devices for Thai
  3. How to Activate an Onscreen Keyboard on Your Computer
  4. How to Change the Language Settings to Thai on Your Computer
  5. Activating the Thai Keyboard on Your Mobile Phone and Tablet
  6. Thai Keyboard Typing Tips
  7. How to Practice Typing Thai

1. Why it’s Important to Learn to Type in Thai

A keyboard

Learning a new language is made so much easier when you’re able to read and write/type it. This way, you will:

  • Get the most out of any dictionary and Thai language apps on your devices
  • Expand your ability to find Thai websites and use the various search engines
  • Be able to communicate much better online with your Thai teachers and friends, and look super cool in the process! 

2. Setting up Your Computer and Mobile Devices for Thai

A phone charging on a dock

It takes only a few steps to set up any of your devices to read and type in Thai. It’s super-easy on your mobile phone and tablet, and a simple process on your computer.

On your computer, you’ll first activate the onscreen keyboard to work with. You’ll only be using your mouse or touchpad/pointer for this keyboard. Then, you’ll need to change the language setting to Thai, so all text will appear in Thai. You could also opt to use online keyboards instead. Read on for the links!

On your mobile devices, it’s even easier—you only have to change the keyboard. We also provide a few alternatives in the form of online keyboards and downloadable apps.

3. How to Activate an Onscreen Keyboard on Your Computer

1- Mac

1. Go to System Preferences > Keyboard.

2. Check the option “Show Keyboard & Character Viewers in Menu Bar.”

3. You’ll see a new icon on the right side of the main bar; click on it and select “Show Keyboard Viewer.”

A screenshot of the keyboard viewer screen

2- Windows

1. Go to Start > Settings > Easy Access > Keyboard.

2. Turn on the option for “Onscreen Keyboard.”

3- Online Keyboards

If you don’t want to activate your computer’s onscreen keyboard, you also have the option to use online keyboards. Here are some good options:

4- Add-ons of Extensions for Browsers

Instead of an online keyboard, you could also choose to download a Google extension to your browser for a language input tool. The Google Input Tools extension allows users to use input tools in Chrome web pages, for example.

4. How to Change the Language Settings to Thai on Your Computer

Man looking at his computer

Now that you’re all set to work with an onscreen keyboard on your computer, it’s time to download the Thai language pack for your operating system of choice:

  • Windows 8 (and higher)
  • Windows 7
  • Mac (OS X and higher)

1- Windows 8 (and higher)

  1. Go to “Settings” > “Change PC Settings” > “Time & Language” > “Region & Language.”
  2. Click on “Add a Language” and select “Thai.” This will add it to your list of languages. It will appear as ไทย with the note “language pack available.”
  3. Click on “ไทย” > “Options” > “Download.” It’ll take a few minutes to download and install the language pack.
  4. As a keyboard layout, you’ll only need the one marked as “Thai – ไทย.” You can ignore other keyboard layouts.

2- Windows 7

1. Go to Start > Control Panel > Clock, Language, and Region.

2. On the “Region and Language” option, click on “Change Keyboards or Other Input Methods.”

3. On the “Keyboards and Languages” tab, click on “Change Keyboards” > “Add” > “Thai.”

4. Expand the option of “Thai” and then expand the option “Keyboard.” Select the keyboard layout marked as “Thai.” You can ignore other keyboard layouts. Click “OK” and then “Apply.”

3- Mac (OS X and higher)

If you can’t see the language listed, please make sure to select the right option from System Preferences > Language and Region

1. From the Apple Menu (top left corner of the screen) go to System Preferences > Keyboard.

2. Click the Input Sources tab and a list of available keyboards and input methods will appear.

3. Click on the plus button, select “Thai,” and add the “Thai” keyboard.

Adding a system language

5. Activating the Thai Keyboard on Your Mobile Phone and Tablet

Texting and searching in Thai will greatly help you master the language! Adding a Thai keyboard on your mobile phone and/or tablet is super-easy.

You could also opt to download an app instead of adding a keyboard. Read on for our suggestions.

Below are the instructions for both iOS and Android mobile phones and tablets.

1- iOS

1. Go to Settings > General > Keyboard.

2. Tap “Keyboards” and then “Add New Keyboard.”

3. Select “Thai” from the list.

4. When typing, you can switch between languages by tapping and holding on the icon to reveal the keyboard language menu.

2- Android

1. Go to Settings > General Management > Language and Input > On-screen Keyboard (or “Virtual Keyboard” on some devices) > Samsung Keyboard.

2. Tap “Language and Types” or “ + Select Input Languages” depending on the device and then “MANAGE INPUT LANGUAGES” if available.

3. Select “ไทย” from the list.

4. When typing, you can switch between languages by swiping the space bar.

3- Applications for Mobile Phones

If you don’t want to add a keyboard on your mobile phone or tablet, these are a few good apps to consider:

6. Thai Keyboard Typing Tips

Typing in Thai can be very challenging at first! Therefore, we added here a few useful tips to make it easier to use your Thai keyboard.

A man typing on a computer

1- Computer

  • Thai keyboards are quite simple because Thai’s consonants, vowels, and tone marks are all included on the keyboard (with Shift and without Shift). To increase typing speed, it’s suggested to remember the location of each Thai letter on the keyboard.
  • There are two layouts of the Thai keyboard called “Ketmanee” and “Pattachote.” However, in 1988, TISI (Thai Industrial Standards Institute) announced that the Ketmanee layout is the standard layout for computers.

2- Mobile Phones

  • There are two types of keyboard layouts for mobile: the QWERTY keyboard and the 3×4 keyboard. People mostly use the QWERTY layout as it’s similar to a PC keyboard.

7. How to Practice Typing Thai

As you probably know by now, learning Thai is all about practice, practice, and more practice! Strengthen your Thai typing skills by writing comments on any of our lesson pages, and our teacher will answer. If you’re a ThaiPod101 Premium PLUS member, you can directly text our teacher via the My Teacher app—use your Thai keyboard to do this!

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Making Merit: End of Buddhist Lent Day in Thailand

Considering the prominence of Buddhism in Thailand, it should come as no surprise that Buddhist holidays take the spotlight in this culturally rich country. 

At the end of Thailand’s rainy season, just before the country’s most bountiful harvest, the Buddhist population celebrates วันออกพรรษา (wan-àawk-phan-sǎa), or “End of Buddhist Lent Day.” If you’ve been keeping up with our blog recently, you may have read about the start of Buddhist Lent; today, we’ll talk about its conclusion. 

Are you ready? Let’s get started!

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1. What is End of Buddhist Lent Day?

A Golden Buddha Statue

In a previous article, we discussed the beginning of Buddhist Lent in Thailand. Today, we’ll focus mainly on the End of Buddhist Lent Day, but we first want to touch on a few key facts about the Lent itself. 

History of the End of Buddhist Lent Day

You may be surprised to find out that Buddhist Lent hasn’t always been observed in Buddhism

Buddhist monks used to travel and teach about Buddhism year-round, according to their availability. But this caused problems during the rainy season, with people complaining that the monks ruined their fields and crops by walking through them in the rain. Buddha heard of this and decided to implement the Buddhist Lent as a way of keeping monks away from the crops during this season.

Monks are encouraged to จำพรรษา (jam phan-săa), or “stay in the Buddhist temple during the Buddhist Lent” and รักษาศีล (rák-săa sǐin), or “observe the precepts,” during this time. Also, during Buddhist Lent, no alcohol is permitted for drinking among monks, and the general population is discouraged from drinking. Those who do so are richly rewarded (keep reading to find out how!). 

    → You know what? This is a great time to brush up on your Religion vocabulary. 😉

The End of Buddhist Lent Day in Thailand

Now, onto today’s topic. 

On End of Buddhist Lent Day, monks are finally able to leave the temple and spread the teachings of Buddha freely. This is a day of celebration, and the perfect occasion to ทำบุญ (tham bun), or “make merit,” for the rest of the Buddhist population. The End of Buddhist Lent also marks the traditional end of the rainy season. 

This day calls for an array of religious traditions, which we’ll talk about in a minute. First…

2. When is the End of Buddhist Lent This Year?

Because the date of Buddhist Lent Day varies each year, so does its end date. For your convenience, here’s a list of the dates for End of Buddhist Lent Day for the next few years.

  • 2020: October 1
  • 2021: October 20
  • 2022: October 10
  • 2023: October 28
  • 2024: October 17

3. Buddhist Lent Day Activities & Traditions

Listening to a sermon in the Buddhist Temple for End of Buddhist Lent Day

The most important religious event for this holiday is a traditional Buddhist Lent ceremony called Pavarana. During this ceremony, monks have the opportunity to both atone for their own wrongdoings and gently call out other monks for their wrongdoings. A unique fact about this tradition is that young monks are allowed to criticize older monks, just as the older monks may criticize the younger ones. Humility is an essential component of Buddhism, meaning that older monks are not to be so prideful that they can’t take criticism. 

For the rest of the Buddhist population, it’s common to ตักบาตร (dtàk bàat), or “give food offerings to a Buddhist monk.” However, these food offerings are different from the offerings given year-round. It’s called the “Thevo food offering event,” during which the Buddha statue (which is normally standing in the shrine) is put onto a cart and pulled through the streets. A bowl is put in front of the statue, and monks walk behind the statue holding their own bowls. Buddhists in the area will prepare both sweet and savory foods, and offer them to the statue and the monks as they walk by. 

About a month after the End of Buddhist Lent, the monks will เทศนา (thêet-sà-năa), or “give a sermon.” Because there’s normally an abundance of food during this time, people who come to listen will offer the monks food. In this special sermon about the final incarnation of the Buddha, there are thirteen “episodes,” and the sermon normally begins in the morning and ends that night. This sermon is intended to teach the general Buddhist population about sins, virtues, giving, and other important aspects of Buddhism. 

    → Learn how to talk about popular Thai Foods with our dedicated vocabulary list. 

4. Now…About That Reward?

Buddhist Monks with Palms Together

Okay, how are monks rewarded for perfectly observing the Buddhist Lent?

In short, they’re exempted from certain regulations that would normally apply to them. For example, they’re allowed to leave the temple without informing the abbot, and without bringing all of their robes. 

These exemptions make it easier for the monks to leave the temple and spread Buddha’s teachings.

5. Essential Vocabulary for End of Buddhist Lent Day

A Buddhist Monk

Let’s review some of the Thai vocabulary from this lesson! 

  • วันออกพรรษา (wan-àawk-phan-sǎa) – “End of Buddhist Lent Day”
  • พระพุทธเจ้า (phrá-phút-thá-jâao) – “Buddha”
  • พุทธศาสนิกชน (phút-thá-săa-sà-ník-gà-chon) – “Buddhist”
  • จำพรรษา (jam phan-săa) – “stay in the Buddhist temple during the Buddhist Lent”
  • เทศนา (thêet-sà-năa) – “give a sermon”
  • พระสงฆ์ (phrá sŏng) – “Buddhist monk”
  • ตักเตือน (dtàk dtuuean) – “advise”
  • ตักบาตร (dtàk bàat) – “give food offerings to a Buddhist monk”
  • ความสามัคคี (khwaam săa-mák-khii) – “unity”
  • รักษาศีล (rák-săa sǐin) – “observe the precepts”
  • ฟังธรรม (fang tham) – “listen to sermon”
  • ทำบุญ (tham bun) – “make merit”

Don’t forget that you can find each of these words and phrases on our Thai End of Buddist Lent Day vocabulary list, along with audio recordings of their pronunciation. 

Final Thoughts

Now you know how Thai monks observe the Buddhist Lent, and how they officially end their Lent season. Are there similar holidays in your country or religion? If so, we would love to hear about them! 

If you want to learn more about Thai culture and society, we recommend the following pages on ThaiPod101.com:

We exist to help you reach your Thai language learning goals, on your time and terms. For access to tons of great content, create your free lifetime account today and take the first step toward language mastery. 

We hope to see you around!

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The Top 100 Thai Verbs You Should Know

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How many actions do you think you do in a day? That number reflects the importance of knowing a language’s verbs for effective communication. 

In this article, you’ll learn 100 Thai verbs that every beginner needs to know. Further, we’ll teach you a little bit about the grammar and usage of these verbs through examples. We believe you’ll be very happy to hear that this is a simple and easy topic!

Is there subject-verb agreement in Thai? What about Thai verb conjugation? The answer to both is a resounding “No!” Thai people use the same form of verbs regardless of the subject.  

Are there Thai verb tenses for present, future, and past? The answer is no. Thai people use the same verb forms regardless of the time.  

So you can see now that this lesson will mainly focus on vocabulary. Basically all you need to worry about is memorizing our Thai verbs list! 
We’ll start this lesson with basic information about Thai verbs, followed by our list of the most useful Thai verbs for beginners. Then, you’ll also get to learn about auxiliary verbs in Thai, and other verbs that are important to know for easy communication.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Thai Table of Contents
  1. Basic Information About Thai Verbs
  2. Intransitive Verbs
  3. Transitive Verbs
  4. The Verb “To Be”
  5. Helping Verbs
  6. Conclusion

1. Basic Information About Thai Verbs

Top Verbs

คำกริยา (kham-gà-rí-yaa) is “verb” in Thai. Before we present to you our list of Thai verbs, we thought it would be nice to give you an explanation about verb types in the Thai language, as well as how to use verbs in a sentence.

1- Verb Types 

There are four types of verbs in the Thai language, listed below. A detailed explanation of each type will be explained in the following sections.

2- Thai Verbs in a Sentence

As mentioned above, there’s no change in Thai verb form, so you don’t have to learn about Thai verb conjugation. Still, we’ll give you a basic idea of how verbs are used in Thai sentence structure.

  • Affirmative sentence: subject + verb + object (if any)
  • Negative sentence: subject + ไม่ (mâi) which is “no” in Thai + verb + object (if any)
  • Question: Add a question word to the sentence; no change in verb.

In the following sections, we present to you the most essential Thai verbs with examples. 

2. Intransitive Verbs

More Essential Verbs

อกรรมกริยา (à-gam-gà-rí-yaa) is “intransitive verbs” in Thai. These are verbs that are able to make a sentence complete without the use of an object. Below is a list of Thai intransitive verbs that are often used in daily life.

1- Walk

เดิน (dooen

Example:  

ยายเดินไปตลาดทุกเช้า

yaai-dooen-bpai-dtà-làat-thúk-cháo

“My grandmother walks to the market every morning.”

2- Run 

วิ่ง (wîng

Example:  

เธอวิ่งเพื่อลดความอ้วนทุกวัน

thooe-wîng-phûuea-lót-khwaam-ûuan-thúk-wan

“She runs everyday to lose weight.”

3- Stand 

ยืน (yuuen

Example:  

ฉันยืนรอเธอนานมาก

chǎn-yuuen-raaw-thooe-naan-mâak

“I have been standing here, waiting for you for ages.”

4- Sit 

นั่ง (nâng

Example:  

ตาอายุมากแล้ว พอนั่งนาน ๆ ก็ปวดหลัง

dtaa-aa-yú-mâak-láaew phaaw-nâng-naan-naan-gâaw-bpùuat-lǎng

“My grandpa is quite old. If he sits for a long time, his back hurts.”

5- Jump 

กระโดด (gra-doot

Example:  

พี่ชายฉันขายาว เลยกระโดดได้ไกล

phîi-chaai-chǎn-khǎa-yaao looei-grà-dòot-dâi-glai

“My older brother can jump far because of his long legs.”

6- Fly 

บิน (bin

Example:  

ทำไมนกตัวนั้นบินไม่ได้

tham-mai-nók-dtuua-nán-bin-mâi-dâi

“Why can’t that bird fly?”

7- Kneel

คุกเข่า (khúk-khào

Example:  

เขาคุกเข่าขอแฟนแต่งงาน

Khǎo-khúk-khào-khǎaw-faaen-dtàaeng-ngaan

“He kneeled, then asked his girlfriend to marry him.”

8- Wake up

ตื่นนอน (dtùuen-naawn);  ตื่น (dtùuen)

Example 1:  

วันนี้เธอตื่นนอนกี่โมง

wan-níi-thooe-dtùuen-naawn-gìi-moong

“What time did you wake up today?”

Example 2:  

วันนี้ฉันตื่นสาย

wan-níi-chǎn-dtùuen-sǎai

“Today, I woke up late.”

Additional Note: ตื่นนอน (dtùuen-naawn) and ตื่น (dtùuen) have exactly the same meaning. However, ตื่นนอน (dtùuen-naawn) is a bit more formal than ตื่น (dtùuen).

9- Sleep 

นอน (naawn

Example

เมื่อคืนแม่นอนไม่หลับ

mûuea-khuuen-mâae-naawn-mâi-làp

“Mom couldn’t sleep last night.”

10- Nap 

งีบ (ngîip

Example

ถ้าง่วง ก็งีบสัก 15 นาทีสิ

thâa-ngûuang gâaw-ngîip-sák-sìp-hâa-naa-thii-sì

“If you are sleepy, take a nap for 15 minutes.”

11- Yawn 

หาว (hǎao

Example

ดูท่าทางน้องจะง่วงแล้วนะ หาวไม่หยุดเลย

duu-thâa-thaang-náawng-jà-ngûuang-láaew-ná hǎao-mâi-yhùt-looei

“Looks like she is sleepy; she has been yawning many times for a while now.”

12- Snore 

กรน (gron

Example

พ่อนอนกรนเสียงดัง

phâaw-naawn-gron-sǐiang-dang

“Dad snores loudly.”

13- Sleepwalking 

ละเมอ (lá-mooe

Example

หลานชายของฉันนอนละเมอบ่อย ๆ 

lǎan-chaai-khǎawng-chǎn-naawn-lá-mooe-bàauy-bàauy

“My nephew sleepwalks often.”

14- Dream 

ฝัน (fǎn

Example

เมื่อคืนฉันฝันดีมาก 

mûuea-khuuen-chǎn-fǎn-dii-mâak

“I dreamed very well (had a good dream) last night.”

15- Speak 

พูด (phûut

Example

ช่วยพูดเสียงดัง ๆ หน่อย ฉันไม่ได้ยิน

chûuai-phûut-sǐiang-dang-dang-nàauy chǎn-mâi-dâi-yin

“Please speak loudly, I can’t hear you.”

16- Smile

ยิ้ม (yím

Example

พอยิ้มแล้ว เธอดูน่ารักมาก

phaaw-yím-láaew thooe-duu-nâa-rák-mâak

“You look very pretty when you smile.”

Young Girl Smiling with Sunscreen on Face

17- Laugh

หัวเราะ (hǔa-ráw

Example

หัวเราะอะไรกันอยู่

hǔa-ráw-à-rai-gan-yhùu

“What are you laughing at?”

18- Cry 

ร้องไห้ (ráawng-hâi

Example

เด็กคนนั้นร้องไห้เสียงดังเพราะตุ๊กตาหาย

dèk-khon-nán-ráawng-hâi-sǐiang-dang-phráw-dtúk-gà-dtaa-hǎai

“That child cried loudly because she lost her doll.”

19- Hiccup

สะอึก (sà-ùek

Example

ต้องทำยังไงถึงจะหยุดสะอึก

dtâawng-tham-yang-ngai-thǔng-jà-yhùt-sà-ùek

“What should I do to stop hiccuping?”

20- Sneeze

จาม (jaam

Example

เธอจามไม่หยุดเลย ไม่สบายเหรอ

thooe-jaam-mâi-yhùt-looei mâi-sà-baai-rǒoe

“You have been sneezing, are you sick?”

21- Lie 

โกหก (goo-hok

Example

อย่าโกหกฉันนะ

yhàa-goo-hòk-chǎn-ná

“Don’t lie to me.”

22- Work 

ทำงาน (tham-ngaan

Example

พนักงานใหม่คนนั้นทำงานดีมาก

phá-nák-ngaan-mài-khon-nán-tham-ngaan-dii-mâak

“That new employee works very well.”

23- Take a bath 

อาบน้ำ (àap-nám

Example:  

พออาบน้ำแล้วฉันก็รู้สึกสดชื่น

phaaw-àap-nám-láaew-chǎn-gâaw-rúu-sùek-sòt-chûuen

“I feel fresh after taking a bath.”

24- Shampoo

สระผม (sà-phǒm

Example:  

พ่อสระผมทุกวัน

phâaw-sà-phǒm-thúk-wan

“Dad shampoos his hair everyday.”

25- Fall 

ตก (dtòk

Example:  

แมวตกจากต้นไม้

maaeo-dtòk-jàak-dtôn-mái

“The cat fell from the tree.”

26- Float 

ลอย (laauy

Example:  

ทำไมเรือถึงลอยอยู่กลางน้ำได้

tham-mai-ruuea-thǔeng-laauy-yhùu-glaang-nám-dâi

“Why do ships float on the water?”

27- Swim 

ว่ายน้ำ (wâai-nám

Example:  

เด็ก ๆ ชอบว่ายน้ำ

dèk-dèk-châawp-wâai-nám

“Children like to swim.”

Children Ready to Swim at the Beach

28- Go 

ไป (bpai

Example:  

ลุงออกไปไหนเมื่อเช้านี้

lung-àawk-bpai-nǎi-mûuea-cháo-níi

“Where did Uncle go this morning?”

29- Come

มา (maa

Example:  

มานี่หน่อย  ฉันอยากได้คนช่วย

maa-nîi-nàauy chǎn-yàak-dâi-khon-chûuai

“Come here, I need help.”

30- (Get) Sick

ป่วย (bpùuai

Example:  

อย่าตากฝน เดี๋ยวป่วย

yhàa-dtàak-fǒn dǐiao-bpùuai

“Don’t stay in the rain or you will get sick.”

31- Dance

เต้น (dtên

Example:  

นักร้องคนนั้นเต้นเก่งมาก

nák-ráawng-khon-nán-dtên-gèng-mâak

“That singer dances very well.”

32- Sing

ร้องเพลง (ráawng-pleeng

Example:  

แม่ร้องเพลงไปด้วย ขับรถไปด้วย

mâae-ráawng-pleeng-bpai-dûuai khàp-rót-bpai-dûuai

“Mom sings while driving.”

33- Pay respect

ไหว้ (wâai

Example:  

นักเรียนไหว้คุณครู

nák-riian-wâai-khun-khruu

“The student pays respect to the teacher.”

34- Born

เกิด (gooet

Example:  

เธอเกิดวันอังคาร

thooe-gòoet-wan-ang-khaan

“She was born on Tuesday.”

35- Die

ตาย (dtaai

Example:  

ตาของเขาตายเพราะอุบัติเหตุรถยนต์

dtaa-khǎawng-khǎo-dtaai-phráw-ù-bàt-thì-hèet-rót-yon

“His grandpa died because of a car accident.”

36- Swear 

สาบาน (sǎa-baan

Example:  

เขาสาบานว่าจะไม่โกหกอีก

khǎo-sǎa-baan-wâa-jà-mâi-gaaw-hòk-ìik

“He swears to never lie again.”

37- Greet

ทักทาย (thák-thaai

Example:  

คนไทยทักทายกันโดยการกล่าวสวัสดี

khon-thai-thák-thaai-gan-dooi-gaan-glàao-sà-wàt-dii

Thai people greet each other by saying ‘hello.’”

38- Understand 

เข้าใจ (khâo-jai

Example:  

เธอเข้าใจที่ฉันพูดมั๊ย

thooe-khâo-jai-thîi-chǎn-phûut-mái

“Do you understand what I said?”

39- Breathe 

หายใจ (hǎai-jai

Example:  

กบหายใจใต้น้ำได้มั๊ย

gòp-hǎai-jai-dtâi-nám-dâi-mái

“Can frogs breathe underwater?”

40- Regret 

เสียใจ (sǐia-jai

Example:  

ฉันเสียใจที่ไม่ตั้งใจเรียนภาษาอังกฤษ

chǎn-sǐia-jai-thîi-mâi-dtâng-jai-riian-phaa-sǎa-ang-grìt

“I regret not paying attention in English class.”

41- Bark 

เห่า (hào

Example:  

หมาเห่าเสียงดัง

mhǎa-hào-sǐiang-dang

“The dog barks loudly.”

42- Agree 

เห็นด้วย (hěn-dûuai

Example:  

ฉันเห็นด้วยกับมติการประชุม

chǎn-hěn-dûuai-gàp-má-thì-gaan-bprà-chum

“I agree with the resolution.”

43- Exercise

ออกกำลังกาย (àawk-gam-lang-gaai

Example:  

ปู่ออกกำลังกายทุกวัน เลยสุขภาพดี

bpùu-àawk-gam-lang-gaai-thúk-wan looei-sùk-gà-phâap-dii

“My grandpa exercises everyday, so he is healthy.”

3. Transitive Verbs

สกรรมกริยา (sà-gam-gà-rí-yaa) is “transitive verbs” in Thai. These are verbs that can’t complete a sentence with their meaning alone; the sentence will require an object to be complete. Below is a list of Thai transitive verbs that are often used in everyday life.

44- Eat 

กิน (gin); ทาน (thaan); รับประทาน (ráp-bprà-thaan

Example 1:  

ฉันชอบกินก๋วยเตี๋ยว

chǎn-châawp-gin-gǔuai-dtǐiao

“I like to eat noodles.”

Example 2:  

เธอจะทานอะไร

thooe-jà-thaan-à-rai

“What do you want to eat?”

Example 3:  

เมื่อวานนี้ คุณแม่รับประทานอาหารไทยตอนเย็น

mûuea-waan-níi khun-mâae-ráp-bprà-thaan-aa-hǎan-thai-dtaawn-yen

“Yesterday, my mother ate Thai food in the evening.”

Additional Note: These three words have exactly the same meaning. However, among these three words, รับประทาน (ráp-bprà-thaan) is the most formal one, followed by ทาน (thaan) and กิน (gin), respectively.

45- Drink 

ดื่ม (dùuem

Example:  

ฉันชอบดื่มนมช็อคโกแลต

chǎn-châawp-dùuem-nom-cháawk-goo-láaet

“I like to drink chocolate milk.”

46- Boil 

ต้ม (dtôm

Example:  

เธอกำลังต้มไข่

thooe-gam-lang-dtôm-khài

“She is boiling the egg.”

47- Fry 

ทอด (thâawt

Example:  

เธอต้องรอให้น้ำมันร้อนก่อนทอดไก่

thooe-dtâawng-raaw-hâi-nám-man-ráawn-gàawn-thôot-gài

“You have to wait for the oil to be hot before frying chicken.”

48- Stir fry

ผัด (phàt

Example:  

ผัดผักอย่างไร

phàt-phàk-yàang-rai

“How do you stir fry vegetables?”

Someone Stir Frying Vegetables

49- Heat up 

อุ่น (ùn

Example:  

ช่วยอุ่นนมให้หน่อย

chûuai-ùn-nom-hâi-nàauy

“Could you please heat up the milk?”

50- Chop 

สับ (sàp

Example:  

สับช็อคโกแลตให้เป็นชิ้นเล็ก ๆ

sàp-cháawk-goo-láaet-hâi-bpen-chín-lék-lék

“Chop the chocolate into small pieces.”

51- Slice 

หั่น (hàn

Example:  

แม่หั่นหมูได้บางมาก

mâae-hàn-mǔu-dâi-baang-mâak

“Mom slices pork very thinly.”

52- Peel 

ปอก (bpàawk

Example:  

ช่วยปอกเปลือกแอปเปิ้ลให้หน่อยได้มั๊ย

chûui-bpàawk-plùueak-áap-bpôoen-hâi-nàauy-dâi-mái

“Can you peel the apple for me?”

53- Wash (dishes)

ล้าง (láang

Example:  

วันนี้ใครจะล้างจาน

wan-níi-khrai-jà-láang-jaan

“Who will wash the dishes today?”

54- Wash (cloth) 

ซัก (sák

Example:  

แม่ซักผ้าปูเตียงเมื่อวาน

mâae-sák-phâa-bpuu-dtiiang-mûuea-waan

“Mom washed the bed sheet yesterday.”

55- Hang 

ตาก (dtáak

Example:  

พ่อกำลังตากผ้า

phâaw-gam-lang-dtàak-phâa

“Dad is hanging clothes to dry now.”

56- Iron 

รีด (riit

Example:  

เธอรีดผ้าเก่งมั๊ย

thooe-rîit-phâa-gèng-mái

“Are you good at ironing?”

57- Look 

ดู (duu

Example:  

ดูนี่สิ สวยจัง

duu-nîi-sì sǔuai-jang

“Look at this, so beautiful.”

58- Read

อ่าน (àan

Example:  

พ่ออ่านหนังสือเร็วมาก

phâaw-àan-nǎng-sǔue-reo-mâak

“Dad reads books very fast.”

Old Man Reading the Bible

59- Write

เขียน (khǐian

Example:  

ครูเขียนภาษาญี่ปุ่นเก่ง

khruu-khǐian-phaa-sǎa-yîi-bpùn-khèng

“My teacher is good at writing Japanese.”

60- Type 

พิมพ์ (phim

Example:  

ใครเป็นคนพิมพ์รายงานนี้

khrai-bpen-khon-phim-raai-ngaan-níi

“Who typed this report?”

61- Listen 

ฟัง (fang

Example:  

มุกดาชอบฟังเพลงแจ็ส

múk-daa-châawp-fang-pleeng-jáaet

“Mukda likes listening to jazz music.”

62- Hit 

ตี (dtii

Example:  

ครูไม่ควรตีนักเรียน

khruu-mâi-khuuan-dtii-nák-riian

“Teachers shouldn’t hit students.”

63- Kick 

เตะ (dtè

Example:  

เขาเตะลูกบอลแรงมาก

khǎo-dte-lûuk-baawn-raaeng-mâak

“He hit the ball very hard.”

64- Shave 

โกน (goon

Example:  

พระต้องโกนผม

phrá-dtâawng-goon-phǒm

“Monks have to shave their head.”

65- Blow 

เป่า (bpào

Example:  

ซุปร้อนมาก ต้องเป่าก่อนกิน

súp-ráawn-mâak dtâawng-bpào-gàawn-gin

“The soup is very hot, so blow it before eating.”

66- Do 

ทำ (tham

Example:  

อย่าลืมทำการบ้าน

yhàa-luuem-tham-gaan-bâan

“Don’t forget to do homework.”

67- Wear (clothing) 

ใส่ (sài

Example:  

พรุ่งนี้เธอจะใส่อะไร

phrûng-níi-jà-sài-à-rai

“What do you want to wear tomorrow?”

68- Take off 

ถอด (thàawt

Example:  

อย่าลืมถอดผ้ากันเปื้อนออก

yhàa-luuem-thàawt-phâa-gan-bpûuean-àawk

“Don’t forget to take off your apron.”

69- Ride 

ขี่ (khìi

Example:  

ฉันขี่จักรยานไม่เป็น

chǎn-khìi-jàk-gà-yaan-mâi-bpen

“I can’t ride bicycles.”

70- Learn 

เรียน (riian

Example:  

พี่เรียนภาษาจีนทุกวันอาทิตย์

phîi-riian-phaa-sǎa-jiin-thúk-wan-aa-thít

“My older sister learns Chinese every Sunday.”

71- Play 

เล่น (lên

Example:  

ไปเล่นเกมส์กันเถอะ

bpai-lên-geem-gan-thòe

“Let’s play games.”

72- Buy 

ซื้อ (súue

Example:  

แม่ซื้อผักจากตลาดเยอะมาก

mâae-súue-phàk-jàak-dtà-làat-yóe-mâak

“Mom bought a lot of vegetables from the market.”

73- Sell

ขาย (khǎai

Example:  

ฉันเพิ่งขายรถคันเก่าทิ้งไป

chǎn-phôoeng-khǎai-rót-khan-gào-thíng-bpai

“I just sold my old car.”

74- Teach

สอน (sǎawn

Example:  

เธอสอนฉันทำบราวนี่ได้มั๊ย

thooe-sǎawn-chǎn-tham-braao-nîi-dâi-mái

“Can you teach me how to make brownies?”

Brownie Batter in a Big Bowl

75- Open 

เปิด (bpòoet

Example:  

เปิดหน้าต่างให้หน่อย

bpòoet-nâa-dtàang-hâi-nàauy

“Please open the window.”

76- Close

ปิด (bpìt

Example:  

อย่าลืมปิดประตู

yhàa-luuem-bpìt-bprà-dtuu

“Don’t forget to close the door.”

77- Turn on 

เปิด (bpòoet

Example:  

เงียบจังเลย เปิดทีวีหน่อยได้มั๊ย

ngîiap-jang-looei bpòot-thii-vii-nàauy-dâi-mái

“It is so quiet. Can you please turn on the TV?”

78- Turn off

ปิด (bpìt

Example:  

หนาวจัง ปิดแอร์ได้มั๊ย

nǎao-jang bpìt-aae-dâi-mái

“I’m cold. Can I turn off the air conditioner?”

79- Send

ส่ง (sòng

Example:  

ฉันจะส่งเอกสารให้ทางอีเมลนะ

chǎn-jà-sòng-èek-gà-sǎan-hâi-thaang-ii-meeo-ná

“I will send documents to you via email.”

80- Receive

รับ (ráp

Example:  

เธอได้รับอีเมลจากฉันรึเปล่า

thooe-dâi-ráp-ii-meeo-jàak-chǎn-rúe-bplào

“Did you receive my email?”

81- Produce

ผลิต (phà-lìt

Example:  

บริษัทนี้ผลิตรถยนต์

baaw-rí-sàt-níi-phà-lìt-rót-yon

“This company produces cars.”

82- Cut 

ตัด (dtàt

Example:  

ตัดกระดาษให้หน่อยได้มั๊ย

dtàt-grà-dàat-hâi-nàauy-dâi-mái

“Can you cut that paper for me?”

83- Kill 

ฆ่า (khâa

Example:  

ใครฆ่าเด็กคนนั้น

khrai-khâa-dèk-khon-nán

“Who killed that child?”

84- Build

สร้าง (sâang

Example:  

ใครสร้างบ้านหลังนี้

khrai-sâang-bâan-lǎang-níi

“Who built this house?”

85- Lean 

พิง (phing

Example:  

กรุณาอย่ายืนพิงกระจก

gà-rú-naa-yhàa-yuuen-phing-grà-jòk

“Please do not lean on this glass.”

86- Fold 

พับ (pháp

Example:  

พับเสื้อแบบนั้นยังไง

pháp-sûuea-bàaep-nán-yang-ngai

“How do you fold a shirt like that?”

87- Choose 

เลือก (lûueak

Example:  

เธอจะเลือกอันไหน

thooe-jà-lûueak-an-nǎi

“Which one will you choose?”

4. The Verb “To Be” 

Negative Verbs

วิกตรรถกริยา (ví-gà-dtàt-thà-gà-rí-yaa) is the verb “to be” in Thai. To be more specific, it refers to verbs that convey the concept that A is B. Below is a list of Thai “to be” verbs and other verbs that are considered วิกตรรถกริยา (ví-gà-dtàt-thà-gà-rí-yaa).

88-90 – To be

Similar to English, there are three verbs for “to be” in Thai: เป็น (bpen), อยู่ (yhùu), and คือ (kuue).  

  • เป็น (bpen) is used to explain the state or status of the subject, or what the subject is.
  • อยู่ (yhùu) is used to tell the location of the subject.
  • คือ (khuue) is used to explain the state or status of the subject. This is information that the listeners didn’t know before.

Example 1:  

เธอเป็นหมอ

thooe-bpen-mhǎaw

“She is a doctor.”

Example 2:  

ไมโลเป็นหมาพันธุ์ชิวาว่า

mai-loo-bpen-mhǎa-phan-shí-waa-wâa

“Milo is a Chihuahua dog.”

Cute Chihuahua Lying Down

Example 3:  

ของขวัญอยู่บนโต๊ะ

Khǎawng-khwǎn-yhùu-bon-dtóe

“The gift is on the table.”

Example 4:  

ยายอยู่จังหวัดลพบุรี

yaai-yhùu-jang-wàt-lóp-bù-rii

“My grandma is at Lopburi.”

Example 5:  

นี่คืออะไร

nîi-khuue-à-rai

“What is this?”

Example 6:  

นี่คือเครื่องดื่มใหม่ของเรา

nîi-khuue-khrûueang-dùuem-mài-khǎawng-rao

“This is our new drink.”

91- Same as 

เหมือน (mhǔuean

Example:  

สีเสื้อของแม่เหมือนสีเสื้อของฉัน

sǐi-sûuea-khǎawng-mâae-mhǔuean-sǐi-sûuea-khǎawng-chǎn

“The colors of my mother’s t-shirt are the same as mine.”

92- Similar to

คล้าย (kláai

Example:  

ล่อมีลักษณะคล้ายลา แต่ตัวเล็กกว่า

lâaw-mii-lák-sà-nà-khláai-laa dtàae-dtuua-lék-gwàa

“A mule is similar to a donkey, but is smaller.”

93- Equal to

เท่า (thâo

Example:  

หนูตัวนั้นตัวใหญ่มาก ขนาดเกือบเท่าลูกหมา

nǔu-dtuua-nán-dtuua-yhài-mâak khà-nàat-gùueap-thâo-lûuk-mhǎa

“That rat is so big, its size is almost equal to that of a puppy.”

94- As if 

ราวกับ (raao-gàp

Example:  

เธอสวยราวกับนางฟ้า

thooe-sǔuay-raao-gàp-naang-fáa

“She is so beautiful, as if being an angel.”

5. Helping Verbs

กริยานุเคราะห์ (gà-rí-yaa-nú-kráw) is “helping verbs” or “auxiliary verbs” in Thai. Using these is very easy! To put a helping verb in a sentence, you don’t have to change the form of the verb or anything. You just put the helping verb in the right place and that’s it.  Below is a list of Thai auxiliary verbs you should know.

95- Will 

Thai word: จะ (

How to use: จะ () + verb for affirmative sentence; จะ () + ไม่ (mâi) + verb for negative sentence

Example 1:  

ฉันจะไปตลาดน้ำพรุ่งนี้

chǎn-jà-bpai-dtà-làat-nám-phrûng-níi

“I will go to the floating market tomorrow.”

Example 2:  

ฉันจะไม่มาที่นี่อีก

chǎn-jà-mâi-maa-thîi-nîi-ìik

“I will not come back here again.”

Floating Market in Thailand

96- Must

Thai word: ต้อง (dtâawng

How to use: ต้อง (dtâawng) + verb for affirmative sentence; ต้อง (dtâawng) + ไม่ (mâi) + verb for negative sentence

Example 1:  

เธอต้องทำงานให้เสร็จวันนี้

thooe-dtâawng-tham-ngaan-hâi-sèt-wan-níi

“You must finish work today.”

Example 2:  

เด็ก ๆ ต้องไม่พูดคำหยาบ

dèk-dèk-dtâawng-mâi-phûut-kham-yhàap

“Children must not speak rude words.”

97- Should 

Thai word: ควร (khuuan

How to use: ควร (khuuan) + verb for affirmative sentence; ไม่ (mâi) + ควร (khuuan) + verb for negative sentence

Example 1:  

เธอควรใส่กางเกงสีเข้ม ๆ พรุ่งนี้

thooe-khuuan-sài-gaang-geeng-sǐi-khêm-khêm-phrûng-níi

“You should wear dark-colored pants tomorrow.”

Example 2:  

นักเรียนไม่ควรไปโรงเรียนสาย

nák-riian-mâi-khuan-bpai-roong-riian-sǎai

“Students shouldn’t go to school late.”

98- Used to 

Thai word: เคย (khooei)

How to use: เคย (khooei) + verb for affirmative sentence; ไม่ (mâi) + เคย (khooei) + verb for negative sentence

Example 1:  

ฉันเคยขึ้นรถเมล์ไปโรงเรียนด้วยตัวเองทุกวัน

chǎn-khooei-khûn-rót-mee-bpai-roong-riian-dûuai-dtua-eeng-thúk-wan

“I used to go to school by bus everyday by myself.”

Example 2:  

เธอไม่เคยกินอาหารรสเผ็ด

thooe-mâi-khooei-gin-aa-hǎan-rót-phèt

“She isn’t used to spicy food.”

Additional Note: เคย (khooei) can also mean “marine shrimp” in Thai.

She Isn’t Used to Spicy Food.

99- X-ing 

Thai word: กำลัง (gam-lang)

How to use: กำลัง (gam-lang) + verb for affirmative sentence

Explanation: When you put กำลัง (gam-lang) in front of verbs, it’s like you’re changing the sentence from present simple tense to present continuous tense.

Example:  

คุณครูกำลังตรวจการบ้านอยู่

khun-khruu-gam-lang-dtrùuat-gaan-bâan-yhùu

“The teacher is now grading homework.”

Additional Notes

  • Thai people don’t use this helping verb in negative sentences.
  • กำลัง (gam-lang) can also mean “power” in Thai.

100- Passive form of a verb

Thai word: ถูก (thùuk)

How to use: ถูก (thùuk) + verb for affirmative sentence; ไม่ (mâi) + ถูก (thùuk) + verb for negative sentence

Example 1:  

ลุงของฉันถูกหมากัดเมื่อวานนี้

lung-khǎawng-chǎn-thùuk-mhǎa-gàt-mûuea-waan-níi

“My uncle was bitten by a dog yesterday.”

Example 2:  

น้องไม่ถูกแม่ทำโทษ แม้จะทำตัวไม่ดี

náawng-mâi-thùuk-mâae-tham-thôot máae-jà-tham-dtuua-mâi-dii

“My younger sister isn’t punished despite not behaving.”

Additional Note: In addition to being a helping verb, ถูก (thùuk) can also mean “correct” and “cheap” in Thai.

101- Already + verb 

Thai word: แล้ว (láaeo)

How to use: verb + แล้ว (láaeo) for affirmative sentence

Example:  

แม่ทำยำเสร็จแล้ว

mâae-tham-yam-sèt-láaeo

“Mom already finished making spicy salad.”

Additional Note: Thai people don’t use this helping verb in negative sentences.

6. Conclusion

We’re happy to tell you that at this point, you’ve already learned all about basic Thai verbs. What do you think about learning Thai verbs? Was this an easy topic as we told you at the beginning of the lesson, or harder than you expected? Tell us what you think in the comments section!

If you’re in Thailand or becoming more familiar with the Thai language, you’ll be able to memorize and start using these Thai verbs pretty quickly. There are a lot of lessons at ThaiPod101.com to help you master this lesson even faster, such as our Thai verbs page with audio.

And of course, don’t forget to start another new fun Thai lesson at ThaiPod101.com after you finish this one. If you want more information on the parts of speech in Thai, our Thai Nouns, Thai Adjectives, or Thai Pronouns articles may be a good place to start.

Happy Thai learning! 

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Useful Verbs in Thai

Best Guide for Learning Pronouns in Thai

Thumbnail

Ann is learning Thai. Ann wants to be able to speak Thai fluently. So Ann reads Thai books everyday.  

Does this sound weird? That’s because these sentences lack pronouns. Yes, you guessed it correctly, this lesson will teach you about pronouns in the  Thai language and how to use them.  

The pronoun is another basic component of grammar you have to learn if you want to master any language.  Thus, if you’re learning Thai, you’ll need to know Thai pronouns in order to speak like a native.

Before we start learning Thai pronouns, you should know what a pronoun is in the Thai language first.  คำสรรพนาม (kham-sàp-phá-naam) is “pronoun” in Thai. Grammatically, Thai has six types of pronouns. Some of these have English equivalents, while some are totally different. Of course, we’ll be covering all of these Thai language pronouns.

In this article, you’ll get to learn Thai pronouns inside and out. We’ll cover everything you should know about Thai pronouns in each category. These include:

  • Thai personal pronouns
  • Thai possessive pronouns
  • Thai demonstrative pronouns
  • Thai interrogative pronouns
  • Thai indefinite pronouns
  • Thai relative pronouns

We’ve prepared a list of these Thai pronouns with examples, and will also cover the Thai pronoun system. 

Are you ready? Let’s get started.

Log in to Download Your Free Cheat Sheet - Beginner Vocabulary in Thai Table of Contents
  1. Thai Personal Pronouns
  2. Thai Demonstrative Pronouns
  3. Thai Interrogative Pronouns
  4. Thai Indefinite Pronouns
  5. Thai Relative Pronouns
  6. วิภาคสรรพนาม
  7. Conclusion

1. Thai Personal Pronouns

Let’s start with Thai personal pronouns, which are called บุรุษสรรพนาม (bù-rùt sàp-phá-naam) in Thai. This part isn’t very hard as the words here are very similar to those in English. The only difference is that in Thai, there are levels of formality, meaning that each English pronoun may have many equivalents in Thai.  

1- Basic information about Thai personal pronouns

  • Thai subject pronouns and Thai object pronouns are the same. You must remember all of these as they’re part of the possessive and reflexive pronouns.
  • Unlike in the English language, there are some subject and object pronouns for “I” and “you” that are gender-specific.
  • For Thai possessive pronouns, the way to remember is: “ของ (khǎawng) + subject/object pronouns.” The usage of this is: “noun + possessive pronoun.”
  • For Thai reflexive pronouns, the way to remember is: “ตัว (dtuua) + subject/object pronouns.” The usage of this is: “ด้วย (dûuai) + reflexive pronoun + เอง (eeng).”

The table below shows the personal pronouns in English and Thai.


Thai subject pronouns
Thai object pronouns
Thai possessive pronounsThai reflexive pronouns
Noun + ของ (khǎawng) + subject/object pronounsด้วย (dûuai) + ตัว (dtuua) + subject/object pronouns + เอง (eeng)
I / Me / My / Myself
ข้าพเจ้า (khâa-phá-jâo)
ดิฉัน (dì-chǎn)
ฉัน (chǎn)
, ผม (phǒm)
กู (guu)
ของข้าพเจ้า (khǎawng khâa-phá-jâo)
ของดิฉัน (khǎawng dì-chǎn)
ของฉัน (khǎawng chǎn)
ของผม (khǎawng phǒm)
ของกู (khǎawng guu)
ตัวข้าพเจ้า (dtuua khâa-phá-jâo)
ตัวดิฉัน (dtuua dì-chǎn)
ตัวฉัน (dtuua chǎn)
ตัวผม (dtuua phǒm)
ตัวกู (dtuua guu)
You / Your / Yourself
ท่าน (thâan)
คุณ (khun)
เธอ (thooe), นาย (naai)
มึง (mueng)
ของท่าน (khǎawng thâan)
ของคุณ (khǎawng khun)
ของเธอ (khǎawng thooe)
ของนาย (khǎawng naai)
ของมึง (khǎawng mueng)
ของท่าน (khǎawng thâan)
ของคุณ (khǎawng khun)
ของเธอ (khǎawng thooe)
ของนาย (khǎawng naai)
ของมึง (khǎawng mueng)
We / Us / Our / Ourselves
เรา (rao)
พวกเรา (phûuak rao)
พวกกู (phûuak guu)
ของเรา (khǎawng rao)
ของพวกเรา (khǎawngphûuak rao)
ของพวกกู (khǎawngphûuak guu)
ตัวเรา (dtuua rao)
ตัวพวกเรา (dtuuaphûuak rao)
ตัวพวกกู (dtuuaphûuak guu)
They / Them / Their / Themselves
พวกท่าน (phûuak thâan)
พวกเขา (phûuak khǎo)
พวกมัน (phûuak man)
ของพวกท่าน (khǎawngphûuak thâan)
ของพวกเขา (khǎawngphûuak khǎo)
ของพวกมัน (khǎawngphûuak man)
ตัวพวกท่าน (dtuuaphûuak thâan)
ตัวพวกเขา (dtuuaphûuak khǎo)
ตัวพวกมัน (dtuuaphûuak man)
He / Him / His / Himself
เขา (khǎo)ของเขา (khǎawng khǎo)ตัวเขา (dtuua khǎo)
She / Her / Herself
เธอ (thooe)
หล่อน (lhàawn)
ของเธอ (khǎawng thooe)
ของหล่อน (khǎawng làawn)
ตัวเธอ (dtuua thooe)
ตัวหล่อน (dtuua làawn)
It / Its / Itself
มัน (man)ของมัน (khǎawng man)ตัวมัน (dtuua man)ดิฉัน (dì-chǎn)
ฉัน (chǎn

* The pronouns in the table above are listed by level of formality. The first/top pronoun in each list is the most formal one, while the last/lowest one is the most informal.

** The pronouns in orange are feminine pronouns in Thai.

*** The pronouns in green are masculine pronouns in Thai.

2- I / Me / My / Myself 

Introducing Yourself

ข้าพเจ้า (khâa-phá-jâo

ข้าพเจ้า (khâa-phá-jâo) is the most formal singular pronoun that means “I” in Thai. It can be used for both males and females. For speaking, Thai people only use this word in very formal situations, such as taking an oath in an important ceremony. However, you can find it a lot in writing, especially in autobiographies.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of ข้าพเจ้า (khâa-phá-jâo), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of ข้าพเจ้า (khâa-phá-jâo), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

เมื่อข้าพเจ้ายังเป็นเด็ก  ข้าพเจ้าพูดอย่างเด็ก

mûuea khâa-phá-jâo yang bpen dèk  khâa-phá-jâo phûut yàang dèk

“When I was a child, I spoke like a child.”

Example 2:  

นั่นคือหนังสือของข้าพเจ้า

nân khuue nǎang-sǔue khǎawng khâa-phá-jâo

“That is my book.”

Example 3:  

ข้าพเจ้าเขียนหนังสือทั้งเล่มนี้ด้วยตัวของข้าพเจ้าเอง

khâa-phá-jâo khǐian nǎng-sǔue tháng lêm níi dûuai dtuua khâawng khâa-phá-jâo eeng

“I wrote the entire book on my own.”

This Is My Book.

ดิฉัน (dì-chǎn)

ดิฉัน (dì-chǎn) is another formal pronoun in Thai. However, it’s not as formal as ข้าพเจ้า (khâa-phá-jâo), and is only used for females. Thai people use this pronoun in formal daily conversations, such as in business-related situations.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of ดิฉัน (dì-chǎn), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of ดิฉัน (dì-chǎn), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

ดิฉันไม่รับข้อเสนอนี้ค่ะ

dì-chǎn mâi ráp khâaw sà-nǒoe níi khâ

“I decline this offer.”

Example 2:  

คุณแม่เพิ่งซักเสื้อของดิฉันไปค่ะ

khun mâae phôoeng sák sûuea khǎawng dì-chan bpai khâ

“My mother just washed my shirt.”

Example 3:  

เดี๋ยวดิฉันจะตรวจสัญญาด้วยตัวดิฉันเองอีกทีค่ะ

dǐiao dì-chǎn jà dtrùuat sǎn-yaa dûuai dtua eeng ìik thii khâ

“I will check the contract by myself again.”

ฉัน (chǎn)

ฉัน (chǎn) is probably the pronoun that females use the most. It can be used in casual and not very formal daily conversations.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of ฉัน (chǎn), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of ฉัน (chǎn), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

ฉันชอบสีเแดงมาก

chǎn châawp sǐi daaeng mâak

“I like the color red a lot.”

Example 2:  

ห้ามจับรูปของฉัน

hâam jàp rûup khǎawng chǎn

“Don’t touch my picture.”

Example 3:  

ฉันทำขนมหวานด้วยตัวฉันเอง

chǎn tham khà-nǒm wǎan dûuai dtuua khǎawng chǎn eeng

“I made this dessert by myself.”

ผม (phǒm)

ผม (phǒm) is a masculine pronoun, and it can be used in both formal situations and casual situations.  

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of ผม (phǒm), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of ผม (phǒm), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

ผมจะไปชะอำพรุ่งนี้

phǒm jà bpai chá-am phrûng-níi

“I will go to Chaam tomorrow.”

Example 2:  

ทีวีของผมเพิ่งเสียไป

thii-wii khǎawng phǒm phôoeng sǐia bpai

“My TV just broke.”

Example 3:  

ผมจะทำด้วยตัวผมเอง

phǒm jà tham dûuai dtuua phǒm eeng

“I will do it by myself.”

กู (guu)

กู (guu) is considered a rude pronoun to use, and you mustn’t use it in formal conversations. Close friends often use this pronoun when talking to each other. It can be used for both males and females.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of กู (guu), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of กู (guu), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

กูไม่ไป

guu mâi bpai

“I won’t go.”

Example 2:  

นี่มันเรื่องของกู  อย่ามายุ่ง

nîi man rûueang khǎawng guu  yàa maa yûng

“This is my business. Don’t stick your nose in.”

Example 3:  

รูปนั้นกูวาดด้วยตัวกูเอง สวยมั๊ย

rûup nán guu wâat dûuai dtuua guu eeng sǔuai mái

“I drew that picture by myself. Is it beautiful?”

3- You / Your / Yourself 

ท่าน (thâan)

ท่าน (thâan) is used with people you respect. Thai people don’t use this pronoun very much in daily life.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of ท่าน (thâan), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of ท่าน (thâan), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

ท่านต้องการอะไร

thâan dtâawng-gaan à-rai

“What do you want?”

Example 2:  

รถของท่านราคาแพงมากมั๊ย

rót khǎawng thâan raa-khaa phaaeng mâak mái

“Is your car very expensive?”

Example 3:  

ท่านทำอาหารให้หลานด้วยตัวท่านเองรึเปล่า

thâan tham aa-hǎan hâi lǎan dûuai dtuua thâan eeng rúe bplào

“Do you cook for your grandchild by yourself?”

คุณ (khun)

คุณ (khun) is used often in daily life. Thai people use this pronoun in formal situations, especially those related to business. 

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of คุณ (khun), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of คุณ (khun), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

คุณอายุเท่าไหร่แล้ว

khun aa-yú thâo-rài láaeo

How old are you?

Example 2:  

ขอดูกระเป๋าของคุณหน่อยค่ะ

khǎaw duu grà-bpǎo khǎawng khun nàauy khâ

“Let me check your bag.”

Example 3:  

คุณหิ้วกล่องนี้ด้วยตัวคุณเองได้มั๊ย

khun hîu glàawng níi dûuai dtuua khun eeng dâi mái

“Can you carry this box by yourself?”

เธอ (thooe)

เธอ (thooe) is used as a feminine pronoun only. It’s often used in casual conversations, or when older people are referring to a woman who’s younger than them.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of เธอ (thooe), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of เธอ (thooe), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

เธอจะกินข้าวเที่ยงด้วยกันมั๊ย

thooe jà gin khâao thîiang dûuai gan mái

“Do you want to have lunch with me?”

Example 2:  

ฉันว่าเสื้อของเธอไม่สวยเลย

chǎn wâa sûuea khǎawng thooe mâi sǔuai looei

“I think your shirt is not beautiful.”

Example 3:  

เธอต้องทำการบ้านด้วยตัวเธอเองนะ

thooe dtâawng tham gaan-baan dûuai dtuua thooe eeng ná

“You have to do homework by yourself.”

นาย (naai

นาย (naai) is used as a masculine pronoun only. It’s often used in casual conversations, or when older people are referring to a man who’s younger than them.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of นาย (naai), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of นาย (naai), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

นายดูเหนื่อย ๆ นะ

naai duu nùueai nùueai ná

“You look tired.”

Example 2:  

การบ้านของนายทำเสร็จรึยัง

gaan-bâan khǎawng naai tham sèt rúe yang

“Have you finished your homework?”

Example 3:  

นายทำรายงานเล่มนี้ด้วยตัวนายเองรึเปล่า

naai tham raai-ngaan lêm níi dûuai dtuua naai eeng rúe bplào

“Did you write this report by yourself?”

มึง (mueng

มึง (mueng) is considered a rude pronoun to use, and you mustn’t use it in formal conversations. Close friends often use this pronoun when talking to each other. It can be used with both males and females.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of มึง (mueng), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of มึง (mueng), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

มึงเดินระวังนะ

mueng dooen rá-wang ná

“You should walk carefully.”

Example 2:  

อันนั้นรถของมึงใช่มั๊ย

an nán rót khǎawng mueng châi mái

“Is that your car?”

Example 3:  

ไหนมึงบอกว่ามึงทำด้วยตัวมึงเองไง

nǎi mueng bàawk wâa mueng tham dûuai dtuua mueng eeng ngai

“You told me you did this by yourself.”

4- We / Us / Our / Ourselves 

เรา (rao) / พวกเรา (phûuak rao

เรา (rao) and พวกเรา (phûuak rao) are pronouns used to refer to a group of people. They can be used in both formal and informal situations. เรา (rao) and พวกเรา (phûuak rao) are pretty much the same and are completely interchangeable. 

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of เรา (rao) or พวกเรา (phûuak rao), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of เรา (rao) or พวกเรา (phûuak rao), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

เรา (พวกเรา)ไม่ต้องการความช่วยเหลือของคุณ

rao (phûuak rao) mâi dtâawng-gaan khwaam chûuai-lǔuea khǎawng khun

“We don’t need your help.”

Example 2:  

นี่คืองานของเรา (พวกเรา)

nîi khuue ngaan khǎawng rao (phûuak rao) 

“This is our job.”

Example 3:  

เราทำสวนนี้ด้วยตัวเรา (พวกเรา)เอง

rao tham sǔuan níi dûuai dtuua khǎawng rao (phûuak rao) eeng

“We do this garden by ourselves.”

Woman Gardening

พวกกู (phûuak guu)

พวกกู (phûuak guu) is another pronoun that’s used to refer to a group of people. However, it’s considered to be impolite, and you mustn’t use this pronoun in formal situations.  

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of พวกกู (phûuak guu), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of พวกกู (phûuak guu), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

พวกกูไม่อยากขายบ้านหลังนี้

phûuak guu mâi yàak khǎai bâan lǎng níi

“We don’t want to sell this house.”

Example 2:  

ร้านนี้คือร้านของพวกกู

ráan níi khuue ráan khǎawng phûuak guu

“This is our shop.”

Example 3:  

พวกกูบริหารร้านนี้ด้วยตัวพวกกูเอง

phûuak guu baaw-rí-hǎan ráan níi dûuai dtuua phûuak guu eeng

“We run this shop by ourselves.”

5- They / Them / Their / Themselves

พวกท่าน (phûuak thâan)

พวกท่าน (phûuak thâan) is a pronoun that’s used to refer to a group of people whom you respect. Thai people normally use this pronoun in formal situations.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of พวกกู (phûuak thâan), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of พวกกู (phûuak thâan), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

พวกท่านได้รับเชิญไปที่ห้องอาหารเวลา 18.00 นาฬิกา

phûuak thâan dâi ráp chooen bpai thîi hâawng aa-hǎan wee-laa sìp bpàaet na-lí-gaa khâ

“They invited you to go to the dining room at six p.m.”

Example 2:  

โต๊ะของพวกท่านอยู่ด้านนู้นค่ะ

dtó khǎawng phûuak thâan yùu dâan núun khâ

“Their table is over there.”

Example 3:  

พวกท่านสามารถกดสั่งอาหารผ่านแทบเล็ตด้วยตัวพวกท่านเองได้

phûuak thâan sǎa-mâat gòt sàng aa-hǎan phàan tháp-lèt dûuai dtuua phûuak thâan eeng dâi

“They can order using this tablet by themselves.”

พวกเขา (phûuak khǎo

พวกเขา (phûuak khǎo) is a pronoun that can be used in situations that are casual or not very formal.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of พวกเขา (phûuak khǎo), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of พวกเขา (phûuak khǎo), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

พวกเขาชอบกีฬาฟุตบอล

phûuak khǎo châawp gii-laa fút-baawn

“They like football.”

Example 2:  

เสื้อทีมของพวกเขาอยู่ที่ไหน

sûuea thiim khǎawng phûuak khǎo yùu thîi nǎi

“Where are their team t-shirts?”

Example 3:  

พวกเขาสามารถฝึกซ้อมด้วยตัวพวกเขาเองได้

phûuak khǎo sǎa-mâat fùek sáawm dûuai dtuua khǎawng phûuak khǎo eeng dâi

“They can practice by themselves.”

พวกมัน (phûuak man)

พวกมัน (phûuak man) is a pronoun that’s used to refer to animals and plants in Thai.  

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of พวกมัน (phûuak man), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of พวกมัน (phûuak man), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

แม่เลี้ยงกระต่ายไว้หลายตัว พวกมันน่ารักมาก

mâae líiang grà-dtàai wái lǎai dtuua phûuak man nâa rák mâak

“Mom has many rabbits. They are very cute.”

Example 2:  

อาหารของพวกมันอยู่ในกล่องนั้น

aa-hǎan khǎawng phûuak man yùu nai glàawng nán

“Their food is in that box.”

Example 3:  

พวกมันหาอาหารกินด้วยตัวของพวกมันเองไม่ได้

phûuak man hǎa aa-hǎan gin dûuai dtuua khǎawng man eeng mâi dâi

“They can’t find food by themselves.”

6- He / Him / His / Himself 

เขา (khǎo)

เขา (khǎo) is a masculine Thai language pronoun. It can be used in both formal and informal situations.  

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of เขา (khǎo), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of เขา (khǎo), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

เขาทำอาหารอร่อยมาก

khǎo tham aa-hǎan à-ràauy mâak

“He is very good at cooking.”

Example 2:  

อาหารของเขามักมีสีสันสวยงาม

aa-hǎan khǎawng khǎo mák mii sǐi-sǎn sǔuai ngaam

“Their food is in that box.”

Example 3:  

เขาสามารถทำอาหารด้วยตัวเขาเองภายใน 10 นาที

khǎo sǎa-mâat tham aa-hǎan dûuai dtuua eeng phaai nai sìp naa-thii

“He can cook by himself within ten minutes.”

7- She / Her / Herself 

เธอ (thooe)

เธอ (thooe) is a common feminine pronoun, and it can be used in both formal and informal situations. 

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of เธอ (thooe), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of เธอ (thooe), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

เธอพูดได้ 3 ภาษา

thooe phûut dâi sǎam phaa-sǎa

“She can speak three languages.”

Example 2:  

สำเนียงของเธอดีมาก

sǎm-niiang khǎawng thooe dii mâak

“Her accent is very good.”

Example 3:  

เธอสามารถไปเที่ยวต่างประเทศด้วยตัวเธอเองได้

thooe sǎa-mâat bpai thîiao dtàang bprà-thêet dûuai dtuua eeng dâi

“She can travel abroad by herself.”

หล่อน (làawn)

หล่อน (làawn) is another feminine pronoun in Thai. However, Thai people don’t use this word much nowadays;  you’re more likely to hear this word in period dramas. Compared to เธอ (thooe), หล่อน (làawn) is more casual.  Thus, this pronoun is used in informal situations.

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of หล่อน (làawn), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of หล่อน (làawn), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

หล่อนกำลังทำอะไรอยู่

làawn gam-lang tham à-rai yùu

“What is she doing now?”

Example 2:  

หล่อนกำลังเลี้ยงลูกของหล่อน

làawn gam-lang líiang lûuk khǎawng làawn

“She is taking care of her baby.”

Example 3:  

หล่อนเลี้ยงลูกด้วยตัวหล่อนเอง  ไม่มีคนช่วย

làawng líiang lûuk dûuai dtuua làawn eeng mâi mii khon chûuai

“She raises her baby by herself with no help from others.”

8- It / Its / Itself 

มัน (man)

มัน (man) is a pronoun that’s used to refer to animals or plants in Thai.  

Once you put ของ (khǎawng) in front of มัน (man), you get a possessive pronoun. And once you put ตัว (dtuua) in front of มัน (man), you get a reflexive pronoun.

Example 1:  

บ้านฉันเลี้ยงสุนัขไว้ 1 ตัว มันแก่มากแล้ว

bâan chǎn líiang sù-nák wái nùeng dtuua man gàae mâak láaeo

“Our family has one dog. It is very old now.”

Example 2:  

บ้านของมันอยู่ในสวน

bâan khǎawng man yùu nai sǔuan

“Its house is in the garden.”

Example 3:  

เพราะมันแก่มากแล้ว  มันเลยทำอะไรด้วยตัวมันเองไม่ได้

phráw man gàae mâak láaeo man looei tham à-rai dûuai dtuua man eeng mâi dâi

“Because it is very old, it can’t do much by itself.”

Girl Hugging Dog

2. Thai Demonstrative Pronouns

Another type of pronoun in Thai is the demonstrative pronoun, which is called นิยมสรรพนาม (ní-yá-má-sàp-phá-naam). Demonstrative pronouns are especially helpful for those just starting to learn Thai. Understanding this aspect of Thai grammar will help you communicate effectively, even if you don’t know the names of certain objects. 

1- This 

Thai pronoun: นี่ (nîi)

Explanation: This pronoun is used to refer to a single noun that’s near the speaker. 

Example:  

นี่คือสินค้าตัวใหม่

nîi khuue sǐn-kháa dtuua mài

“This is a new product.”

2- That 

Thai pronoun: นั่น (nân) / โน่น (nôon)

Explanation: นั่น (nan) is used to refer to a single noun that’s far from the speaker, but close to the listener. โน่น (nôon) is used to refer to a single noun that’s far from both the speaker and the listener.

Example 1:  

นั่นคืออะไร

nân khuue à-rai

“What is that?”

Example 2:  

โน่นคือเสื้อผ้าของแม่

nôon khuue sûuea-phâa khǎawng mâae

“That is Mother’s clothing.”

3- These 

Thai pronoun: พวกนี้ (phûuak níi)

Explanation: This pronoun is used to refer to a plural noun that’s near the speaker.

Example:  

จะให้เอาพวกนี้วางไว้ตรงไหน

jà hâi ao phûuak níi waang wái dtrong nǎi

“Where do you want me to put these?”

4- Those

Thai pronoun: พวกนั้น (phûuak nán) / พวกโน้น (phûuak nóon)

Explanation: พวกนั้น (phûuak nán) is used to refer to a plural noun that’s far from the speaker, but close to the listener. พวกโน้น (phûuak nóon) is used to refer to a plural noun that’s far from both the speaker and the listener.

Example 1:  

คนพวกนั้นมาทำอะไรที่นี่

khon phûuak nán maa tham à-rai thîi nîi

“What are those people doing here?”

Example 2:  

คนพวกโน้นกำลังทำงานอยู่

khon phûuak nóon gam-lang tham ngaan yùu

“Those people are working.”

5- Here 

Thai pronoun: ที่นี่ (thii níi)

Example:  

วางไว้ที่นี่

waang wái thîi nîi

“Put it here.”

6- There

Thai pronoun: ตรงนั้น (dtrong nán) / ตรงโน้น (dtrong nóon)

Explanation: ตรงนั้น (dtrong nán) is used to refer to an area that’s far from the speaker, but close to the listener. ตรงโน้น (dtrong nóon) is used to refer to an area that’s far from both the speaker and the listener.

Example 1:  

ตรงนั้นเกิดอะไรขึ้น

dtrong nán gòoet à-rai khûen

“What is happening there?”

Example 2:  

เธอกำลังซักผ้าอยู่ตรงโน้น

thooe gam-lang sák phâa yhùu dtrong nóon

“She is washing clothes over there.”

3. Thai Interrogative Pronouns

Basic Questions

Thai interrogative pronouns, called ปฤจฉาสรรพนาม (phrùt-chǎa-sàp-phá-naam), are another pronoun type you have to learn about. These are also known as “question words” because they’re most often used when asking questions.

1- Who and Whom

Thai pronoun: ใคร (khrai)

Explanation: ใคร (khrai) is a pronoun that’s used to inquire about a person (or people). ใคร (khrai) can be both a subject and object pronoun.  

Example:  

ใครเป็นคนวาดรูปนี้

khrai bpen khon wâat rûup níi

“Who drew this picture?”

2- Whose 

Thai pronoun: ของใคร (khǎawng khrai)

Explanation: ของใคร (khǎawng khrai) is a pronoun that inquires about the ownership of a certain noun.

Example:  

กระเป๋าใบนี้เป็นของใคร

grà-bpǎo bai níi bpen khǎawng khrai

“Whose bag is this?”

3- What

Thai pronoun: อะไร (à-rai)

Explanation: อะไร (à-rai) is a pronoun that inquires about the name, definition, or description of an object.

Example:  

นี่คืออะไร

nîi khuue à-rai

“What is this?”

4- Which

Thai pronoun: อันไหน (an nǎi) / คนไหน (khon nǎi)

Explanation: อันไหน (an nǎi) is a pronoun that’s used to ask another party to choose one object out of two or more available ones. คนไหน (khon nǎi) is a pronoun that’s used to ask another party to choose one person out of two or more people.

Example 1:  

เธอจะเอาอันไหน

thooe jà ao an nǎi

“Which one do you want?”

Example 2:  

คนไหนจะเป็นคนถูบ้าน เอหรือบี

khon nǎi jà bpen khon thǔu bâan ee rǔue bii

“Which person will mop the house? A or B?”

5- Where

Thai pronoun: ที่ไหน (thîi nǎi)

Explanation: ที่ไหน (thîi nǎi) is a pronoun that inquires about place or location. 

Example

บ้านของเธออยู่ที่ไหน

bâan khǎawng thooe yùu thîi nǎi

“Where is your house?”

6- When 

Thai pronoun: เมื่อไหร่ (mûuea-rài)

Explanation: เมื่อไหร่ (mûuea-rài) is a pronoun that inquires about time.

Example:  

เธอจะมาถึงเมื่อไหร่

thooe jà maa thǔeng mûuea-rài

“When will you arrive?”

7- Why 

Thai pronoun: ทำไม (tham-mai)

Explanation: ทำไม (tham-mai) is a pronoun that’s used to inquire about a reason something happened.

Example:  

เธอซื้อทีวีใหม่ทำไม เครื่องเก่าก็ยังดูได้

thooe súue thii-wii mài tham-mai khrûueang gào gâaw yang chái dâi

“Why did you buy a new TV? Your old one is still fine.”

4. Thai Indefinite Pronouns

อนิยมสรรพนาม (à-ní-yá-má-sàp-phá-naam) is “indefinite pronoun” in Thai. You may notice that some of these pronouns are the same as Thai interrogative pronouns; however, the way to use them is different. These Thai indefinite pronouns are used in declarative sentences, not in questions. 

1- Anyone and Anybody 

Thai pronoun: ใคร (khrai)

Explanation: You can use this as both a subject and object pronoun. It’s used to refer to an unspecified person in a declarative sentence.  

Example:  

ใครก็ทำได้ ง่ายแค่นี้เอง

khrai gâaw tham dâi ngâai khâae níi eeng

“Anyone and anybody can do this, it is this easy.”

2- Anything 

Thai pronoun: อะไร (à-rai)

Explanation: This pronoun is used to refer to an unspecified object in a declarative sentence.  

Example:  

ฉันกินอะไรก็ได้

chǎn gin à-rai gâaw dâi

“I can eat anything.”

3- Anywhere 

Thai pronoun: ที่ไหน (thîi nǎi)

Explanation: It’s used to refer to an unspecified place in a declarative sentence.  

Example:  

ฉันไปเป็นผู้ใหญ่แล้ว จะไปที่ไหนก็ได้

chǎn bpen phûu-yài láaeo jà bpai thîi nǎi gâaw dâi

“I’m an adult now. I can go anywhere.”

5. Thai Relative Pronouns

ประพันธสรรพนาม (phra-phan-tha-sap-pha-naam) is “relative pronoun” in Thai. This type of pronoun is used to do two things in a sentence: 1) Replace the noun in the first sentence, and 2) Link two sentences together. 

In English, relative pronouns are “which,” “where,” “who,” “whom,” and “whose,” depending on the noun.  However, in the Thai language, ที่ (thîi) can be used for all types of nouns. Below are some examples:

Example 1:  

ฉันชอบอาหารที่มีรสหวาน

chǎn châawp aa-hǎan thîi mii rót wǎan

“I like food which is sweet.”

  • ฉันชอบอาหาร (chǎn châawp aa-hǎan) = “I like food.”
  • อาหารมีรสหวาน (aa-hǎan mii rót wǎan) = “Food is sweet.”
I Like Food Which Is Sweet.

Example 2:  

แม่ชอบสถานที่ที่อากาศดี

mâae châawp sà-thǎan-thîi thîi aa-gàat dii

“Mom likes a place where the weather is good.”

  • แม่ชอบสถานที่ (mâae châawp sà-thǎan-thîi) = “Mom likes a place.”
  • สถานที่อากาศดี (sà-thǎan-thîi aa-gàat dii) = “Place has good weather.”

Example 3:  

พ่อชอบลูกน้องที่ขยัน

phâaw châawp lûuk-náawng thîi khà-yǎn

“Dad likes staff (members) who are hardworking.”

  • พ่อชอบลูกน้อง (phâaw châawp lûuk-náawng) = “Dad likes staff (members).”
  • ลูกน้องขยัน (lûuk-náawng khà-yǎn) = “Staff (members) are hardworking.”

Example 4:  

น้องชอบนักร้องที่ฉันชอบเหมือนกัน

náawng châawp nák-ráawng thîi chǎn châawp mǔuean gan

“My sister likes a singer whom I also like.”

  • น้องชอบนักร้อง (náawng châawp nák-ráawng) = “My sister likes a singer.”
  • ฉันชอบนักร้อง (chǎn châawp nák-ráawng) = “I like a singer.”

Example 5:  

เจ้านายเลือกผู้หญิงที่ลายมือสวยมาเป็นเลขา

jâo-naai lûueak phûu-yǐng thîi laai-muue sǔuai maa bpen lee-khǎa

“The boss chose a woman whose handwriting is good to be his secretary.”

  • เจ้านายเลือกผู้หญิงมาเป็นเลขา (jâao-naai lûueak phûu-yǐng maa bpen lee-khǎa) = “The boss chose a woman to be his secretary.”
  • ผู้หญิงลายมือสวย (phûu-yǐng laai-muue sǔuai) = “Woman has good handwriting.”

Actually, there are two other pronouns in this group, which are ซึ่ง (sûeng) and อัน (an). However, Thai people rarely use these words nowadays.

6. วิภาคสรรพนาม 

วิภาคสรรพนาม (ví-phâak-sàp-phá-naam) is the last type of pronoun in Thai, and is actually unique to the Thai language. These pronouns are used to show that the individual components of one noun group do the same (or different) things as each other. This may sound a bit confusing now, but the explanations and examples below should clarify this for you. 

1- ต่าง

Thai pronunciation: dtàang

How to use: This pronoun is used when people in the same group do different things. To use it, put ต่าง (dtàang) after the subject.

Example:  

นักเรียนต่างทำงานในส่วนของตนเองอย่างขยัน

nák-riian dtàang tham ngaan nai sùuan khǎawng dton eeng yàang khà-yǎn

“Each of the students does their part of the work diligently.”

2- บ้าง

Thai pronunciation: bâang

How to use: This pronoun is used when people in the same group do a few different activities. To use it, put บ้าง (bâang) after the subject of the first sentence; for the following sentence, you use บ้าง (bâang) instead of the subject.

Example:  

นักเรียนบ้างก็เล่นกับเพื่อน บ้างก็กินขนมในเวลาพัก

nák-riian bâang gâaw lêen gàp phûuean bâang gâaw gin khà-nǒm nai wee-laa phák

“Some students play with their friends while some students eat snacks during the break.”

  • นักเรียนเล่นกับเพื่อนในเวลาพัก (nák-riian lêen gàp phûuean nai wee-laa phák) = “Students play with their friends during the break.”
  • นักเรียนกินขนมในเวลาพัก (nák-riian gâaw gin khà-nǒm nai wee-laa phák) = “Students eat snacks during the break.”

3- กัน

Thai pronunciation: gan

How to use: This pronoun is used when people in the same group do the same activities together. To use it, put กัน (gan) after the verb.

Example:  

นักเรียนช่วยกันทำความสะอาดห้องเรียน

nák-riian chûuai gan tham khwaam sà-àat hâawng riian

“Students clean the classroom together.”

7. Conclusion

Improve Listening

Congratulations on reaching the conclusion. That means you’ve already learned everything about Thai pronouns. 

Did you find it hard, or are Thai pronouns similar to those in your language? What do you think about this lesson? Please leave a comment below to let us know!

You may find it difficult to remember everything in this Thai pronouns list. Still, since you’ve learned about these pronouns with their Thai pronunciation, you should go back and try to pronounce them throughout the lesson. Saying the words out loud often will help you remember them better. Anyway, we encourage you to keep practicing this lesson. Pronouns are a basic and important part of the Thai language, so you need to know them. Learning Thai pronouns can be hard, but don’t give up.

What should you learn next? Visit ThaiPod101.com to choose your next lesson. There are various lessons on interesting topics you can choose to explore. Since you’ve already learned about pronouns in this lesson, you may want to try 100 Adjectives and 100 Nouns.

Happy Thai learning, and good luck!

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